George research sources

George Candler

Last edited 20 Aug 2010

A good part of any social science degree should emphasize research and writing, research and writing, research and writing.  The carefully written word is harder to ignore than the spoken word.  The written word is also much more effective when backed by rigorous research.  By rigorous I mean systematic and comprehensive. Research should not be a matter of cobbling together enough information to reach the length requirement of an assignment. You should canvass all of the research tools at your disposal to identify relevant works. This brief page is meant as an introduction to some of the research sources at your disposal here at iusb. It is followed by some examples of an acceptable referencing format, and a few links to online professional writing tips.

Thomas G. Carpenter Library:

Yes, ink smeared across compressed wood pulp is still a valuable information resource. For you internet phenoms, happily most contemporary library catalogues are now electronic, and accessible on the internet. At UNF, you can access the following key resources:

Various electronic links are available through the Articles, Journals and More links on the Carpenter Library homepage.  Two especially useful ones are EBSCO Host Electronic Journals Service and JSTOR.An increasing number of journals are now offering full text articles on line, either directly or through electronic search engines.  This means that you can search the library for articles from home, with an internet hookup. 

The internet:

The internet contains a wealth of information, unfortunately much of it is of dubious quality.  It is often pointed out that anyone with the requisite technical equipment (computer, modem and server?) can post a web site on any subject whatsoever. Random word searches may well pull up one of these ill-informed or, worse, malicious free-lance sites. I would argue that the internet is invaluable, though, for two types of information:

Getting away from academia a bit, there are myriad interesting recreational sources. Two of my favourites, followed by some inanity:

Beyond this, I'd argue that the value of the internet diminishes dramatically. As a general rule, if you are unfamiliar with the source of the information, be cautious.



There is no one correct way to cite sources, though over the years students have exhibited exceptional creativity in developing many incorrect ways. For my purposes, referencing must achieve the following:

Sample references. Examples of one adequate way of citing can be found in the references at the end of each online lecture note. For simplicity, I've collected (by popular request) a few here, below.
Sheridan, Michael (1999). Vermont State Government Since 1965. Burlington: University of Vermont.
Smith, Adam (1776).  The Wealth of Nations.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976.
Stillman, Richard (1996). Public Administration. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Book chapters:
Gillies, Paul (1999). "The state and local government." Michael Sheridan (ed.), Vermont State Government Since 1965. Burlington: University of Vermont, p. 561-82.
Harlow, Susan (1999).  "Agriculture." Michael Sheridan (ed.), Vermont State Government Since 1965. Burlington: University of Vermont, p. 467-83.
Weber, Max (1946). "Bureaucracy." Richard Stillman (1996), Public Administration. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Academic journal articles:
Candler, George (1996). "The Tongan Construction Industry: infrastructure provision in a small economy." Pacific Economic Bulletin 12(1): 24-35.
Candler, George (1999a). "Civil society and development: scientific and professional associations in public policy in Santa Catarina and Sergipe, Brazil." Policy Studies Journal 27(3): 427-45.
Candler, George (1999b). "Interest groups and social movements: self or public interested? Insights from the Brazilian third-sector literature." Voluntas 10(3): 237-53.

Magazine articles:
The Economist (1999). "The gavel and the robe," 7 August, p. 43-4.
Duncan, Tim (1984). "New Right crusaders challenge the Labor line." The Bulletin, 2 October, p. 33-5.
Duncan, Tim (1985). "New Right: where it stands and what it means." The Bulletin, 10 December, p. 23-6.

Newspaper articles:
"Newfoundlanders randy, Quebecers glum, poll suggests." The Chronicle-Herald, 13 December 1999, p. A7.
Simpson, Jeffrey (1999a). "City one councilor shy: report." The Chronicle-Herald (Halifax), 5 January, p. A1.
Simpson, Jeffrey (1999b). "'Vested interest' led to new seat proposal." The Chronicle-Herald (Halifax), 6 January, p. A-3.

Online sources:
Aukofer, Frank (1999).  "Kohl vows to win Dairy price fight."  Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, 21 November, accessed through Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe.
United States Department of Agriculture (1996).  "USDA01: End the Wool and Mohair Subsidy." National Performance Review.  Online, available:  Accessed 20 Sep 99.
White House (1999).  "OMB's Organization." Welcome to the White House, online.  Available: Accessed 10 Nov 99.

Personal interviews:
Mandela, Nelson (1999). Personal interview, 10 April.
[It is customary to keep transcripts or field notes of interviews as documentary evidence].

A good link on writing can be found at the On-Line Writing Lab at Purdue University.  UNF also has its own writing help through Tutor Trac at the Academic Center for Excellence.