Page Title:Florida History Online

The Indian Frontier in British East Florida; Letters to Governor James Grant from
British Soldiers and Indian Traders.

James Grant to James Pampellone, or Officer Commanding at Appalaché, 14 Sep 1764, St Augustine. JGP: R1; F83.

This Letter will be presented to you, by a Mr. Rolle, a Gentleman of Family and Fortune in England, who has an Order from His Majesty for a Grant of a considerable Tract of Land near Appalaché. Upon his arrival you’l be so good as to point out to him the best and safest method of accommodating himself, the new settlers he carries with him, and such as may afterwards follow him near the Fort, where they are to plant Indian Corn and such other things as may be found necessary for their present advantage and immediate subsistence, without giving offence to the neighbouring Indians, who must be treated with great delicacy ‘till their limits are settled at a general Congress of the Head Men of the Creek Nation.

I must beg of you to give Mr. Rolle all the information in your power with regard to the Country, and that you will order the Indian Interpreter (when he can be spared form the Fort) to attend Mr. Rolle when he chuses to go into the Country to consider the nature and Soil of it in order to fix upon the Tract of Land, which is afterwards to be survey’d out to him in obedience to His Majesty’s order, which he has deliver’d to me. If Mr. Stuart should not be at Appalché, when Mr. Rolle arrives, you’l please to inform the Indians who come to the Fort that the white people have only come there to look at the Country, but that they need not be under any apprehension of their settling there without their Consent being first obtained, and that they will find them good Neighbours if they should agree to it, and make use of every argument you can think of to make them easy and quiet ‘till Mr. Stuart and I can find means to bring the head Men together, and you may inform them that I have brought a great many things from the Great King, to supply their wants, as he loves the Red people and knows that they were ill provided. I wish you and your Garrison much happiness which you cannot enjoy but by being in great harmony with your numerous Neighbours. I beg to hear from you by every opportunity, that I may be so well informed as possible of the temper and disposition of those Indians.

Return of his Majesty’s Ordinance and Stores, Present at the Garrison at Appalacha, 26 September 1764. JGP: R9; F129-130.



Brass Ordnance Mounted On Travelling Carriage, Compleat with Timber Ammunition Barel And _______ ____

6 Pounders 1

Iron Ordnance Mounted On Garrisons Employ & Upon Carriag not Compleat

4 Pounders 3
6 Pounders 2

Shott fix’d to Wooden Batterys and (Flannel?) Cartridges

6 Pounders
____ 99
___ 100

John Stuart to Creeks at Apalachee, 25 Sep 1764. JGP: R6; F193-194

Friends and Brothers,

The great King George,Your & our common father, has been pleased to Appoint me as his Agent, and to entrust me with the management & direction of whatever concerns the Indians.

As it is his Opinion, Will & Intention, so it is my indispensible Duty to promote harmony, peace & Friendship between his White & Red Children. With this View, [I] am now come to see you, and as far as I can to remove any obstacle to the Accomplishment of this Desirable end.

When, with the Governors of Virginia, the Two Carolina’s  & Georgia, I met last Year the leading Men of Your as well as of the other great Nations at Augusta in Georgia, I then in the Name and by Order of the great King declared his Gracious and benevolent Intentions towards you, and Explained the Motives that induced him to remove the French & Spaniards beyond the Mississippi, that the disorder & confusion occasioned by their False insinuations & misrepresentations might be totally removed and Succeeded by peace & good order between the Indian Nations & his Subjects, that the Chain of Friendship shou’d be Strengthen’d and brighten’d by a plentifull protection & upon terms of Mutual advantage & Security. I now repeat the same to you, because the headmen who are now here were not at that meeting, and for the same reason, I shall recite the Treaty that was Solemnly enter’d into by the Deputies of the Respective Nations and (&ca.?)

And I must Acquaint you, that your reaping the great advantage and happiness offer’d to you in his Majesty’s Royal Friendship and powerful protection will depend on your Strict observation & performance of the Said Treaty, by a peaceable and Friendly Demeanor to the White people in General by good treatment of your Traders, whose lives and properties must be inviolably Secured and protected, otherwise you cannot Expect any will be permitted or so mad as to go amongst you.

I likewise recommend to you in particular who reside in the Neighbourhood of this Fort, to behave as Friends & Brothers to the English who have Succeeded the Spaniards in the possession of it and Who are more able and willing than they to assist you in every respect and you will upon all occasions find them when well used kind and obliging as Brothers ought to be.

I Sent into your Nation a Copy of the Kings Royal Instructions to his Governors concerning your Lands, which you may be assured will be Strictly observed, nor shall they any where be Settled beyond the Limits established at the Late Congress without your Consent. I have no more to add but to wish you plenty of Game, Peace & Prosperity, that you may Multiply and your Children grow up to be Men & Women.

Chehayaché to John Stuart, Apalachee, 27 Sep 1764. JGP: R6; F194

Chehayaché head Warrior of Chescatalouga Return’d the following Answer to the above Talk


I now see you are the Great Kings Beloved Man come to Smoke with us, we have Shaken hands together and my heart is glad. The Spaniards are gone, and you are now on the ground which we lent them: we approve of it, and will always hold you fast as Brethren.

I heard the Treaty read, which our head Warriors and you made at Augusta, And it agrees in every Particular with what they told us. You recommend to us to be upon Friendly terms with the White Men who live in the Fort, it is our intention to live like Brothers with all White Men and with them.

James Pampellone to James Grant, A Return of the Provisions and Liquor in Store at Apalache, 29 September 1764. JGP: R9; F134.













James Pampellone, Lieutenant, 9th Regiment, Commanding at Apalache, to James Grant, Apalachee, 1 October 1764. JGP: R9; F126-127.

I have the Pleasure of informing your Excellency by this Letter that I arrived safe with my Detachment at this post the 25th of last month and succeeded to the Command of it the first of this [month], at which time Captt Harries sailed for Pensacola. Pursuant to your Excellency’s orders . . . I herein return a full state of the Garrison, ammunition, and provisions in the manner I found them when I took the Command At my arrival here. I met with Captain Stuart, Superintendant of Indian Affairs, to the Southward, who had just then called a congress of the Indians at which I was present. In regard to their talk I must refer your Excellency to his Letter, which I have enclosed to you and am now employed in putting the fort in the best posture of Defense. I say that on my coming here I found two four pounders and one field piece, but as I thought Swiveled would be of particular use in this Garrison, I purchased two from Captain Lawrence of the Live Oak, whom I found here. As I shall soon be under a necessity of sending out an Officer with a party at wood culling I propose placing each of them in two of the big Canoes, which will add a good deal to the Security for the party should the Indians take it in their heads to be troublesome. I expect also two six pounders from Pensacola, pursuant to an order from his Excellency General Gage. The Carriages are already here. We have another inconvenience also attending this Garrison, with the long way we are often obliged to go to fetch water. I have been these two days, sinking wells, in different parts of the Fort but finding the Water brackish, was obliged to desist. I hope my endeavours however will not prove fruitless. Should I succeed, it will save the Garrison an immense deal of Labour, and perhaps the Lives of Several.

Your Excellency desired I give you a description of the Fort, what we call the Fort, consists of a stone building, having nine sides and nine angles, in the Conflux of two Rivers with a ditch round it which I propose cleaning and deepening. I Shall set about repairing the houses in the Fort, as soon as possible as they want it much. The Indian that carries this dispatch is promised by me that on his safe delivering of it he shall be given two Blankets at St. Augustine. If your Excellency will be pleased to order it to him, I shall be much obliged to you, having engaged my word that he would have it. He is likewise at his Return to have two Guns and one cag of Rum. This is the agreement Capt Stuart & myself made with him, hope he will arrive safe there, likewise return to here with your orders. . . .

[P.S.] Hope to give your Excellency a better description of the Fort with a plan of the same, the next opportunity. . . .

John Stuart to James Grant, Pensacola, 12 October 1764. JGP: R6; F229-231.

I had the pleasure of writing your Excellency from Apalache the 28th Ultimate which an Indian undertook to deliver to you. I then gave you a full account of my transactions with the Indians in that Neighbourhood. I [departed here October 1 and arrived here October 4] . . . . I received an order from the Secretary of State Lord Halifax dated 12 May to Reside for some time in one or other of the Floridas, until affairs are settled with the Indians upon a solid foundation. . . .

At the same time I had a Letter from General Gage, who recommends Pensacola as the properest place, but says he only mentions it as an [observation], and that I am to act as I shall see best for the good of the Service; however although I look upon His recommendation as little short of an order, I have acquainted him that I shall return to Augustine & Charles Town to Settle matters as soon as affairs will permit. The Choice of a Deputy is entirely left to Me. . . . I must think of some good reason for living at Saint Augustine, for I have every inducement to give it the preference, so far as relates to myself. You are extremely kind in what you mention and I shall think myself happy to be with you and near You. This is a horrid place in every respect except the Harbour which is fine.

Mr. Johnstone is not as yet arrived, his Suite have been here some time, they left him at Jamaica and are impatiently looking for him. Indian Affairs have not at all been Managed here with oeconomy, which will probably expose me to the ill will of the Indians as I shall be under the necessity of altering the Manner of treating them, a Congress was held by the Commanding officer here, with the Upper Creeks, a treaty concluded and Cession of land accepted of before my arrival, all which must be done over again.

The Spaniards possess themselves of New Orleans about the end of this Month. Lord Adam Gordon who is not here setts out for said place tomorrow, and I accompany him. My principal point in View is to facilitate Major Loftus’s voyage up the Mississippi which is Strongly recommended by the General. We propose being gone about Ten days and I hope at my return to Meet the Governor here when I shall set about Business briskly. You may depend on my attending to what you recommend, with regard to the Creeks. It gives me pleasure to hear that the Lords of Trade had patience to read my long Indian Letter, 10 Sheets on Indian affairs cannot be very Amusing. This will be delivered by John Gordon to whom please be referred for accounts of this Country, and I shall periodically communicate to you by every opportunity whatever occurs worth Notice. I begg to be recommended to Mr. Dunnett. . . .

James Pampillone. Names of the Indian Towns, Number of Gun Men, and the miles distant from St Mark’s Fort Apalache, 21 January 1765. JGP: R8; F23.

Names of the Towns

No of Gunmen

Miles distant from the Fort

Old Fields (the Spaniards had formerly a fort there)



Flint River, or Chiskalalufa



Little Town















These are the nearest towns to me, belonging to the lower Creeks, the soil rich and fertile, and well watered. The other towns are the Cowettas, Ufallees, Pallochucalla, Towassee, Swaglew, Latchaway, of them I have yet not account.

A Return of Provisions in his Majesties store at Apalache. January 21, 1765.
Flour Casks 70
Pork Casks 29
Pease Casks 8
Rice Tierces 1
Rum Gallons 130

James Pampellone to James Grant, Apalachee, 25 April 1765. JGP: R8; F193.
Return of Provisions in store at Apalache, April 25, 1765.








Flour Casks







Pork Casks







A trader at Apalachicola,  Ed Haynes to Commander, 22 March 176[5?]. JGP: R8; F189-190 [inclosure sent by James Pampellone to Grant in 26 April 1765 letter]

A Talk giving by all ye head men of The Lower Creek nation at The Palachokalas who was Told by Tatguoh at St Marks[.] we was Clearing and fencing Land to plant wich was Giving by the Cosent of ye Indians and St[e]phen Forster Liguster [interpreter] wich was no ways aprovd of by them[.] they will alow no Such thing but Say They are Joynd in one Talk from ther nebigouring nations to part with no more land then was Giving at the Congres at agustar [Augusta, Georgia]. The Chikasaws, Chataws, Talapoosaws and [torn section of letter] Sapson [probably Sampson, an Iindian trader] say you want to plant that the Indains may have provisions when they Come To see you but the spaniards never askd for [Land.] but they [the Indians] think they gave Land enough already you may bring provison as the spaniards did for selling[.] and Incroaching they say maks al the disturbance that has been they want nothing but a Good understanding betwn us[.] they say peopl Comes and tells you Grate Liys for wich reason when any talk is Sent they must bring you a Leter or not belive what they for[.] They have agreed to send Their 2 head wariors with this Talk by the Consent of all and hope you will belive it. your honour wrot to me he wanted a Comison and to mind his behavour and not to recomend [him] without desarving I shall bring myself in [to] trouble I can say but litel of him as I have Lived but one twelf month [at] ye Town[.] he behaves well as far as I have seen and all this town[’]s people prov our nations good [heard] a great deall to make maters up after ye murder was done Last winter[.] was twelf month ther was no talk about a Comison amongst them he said nothing in ye [square] his father Talk t[o] all to know if the other Towns wold agree about the Land but they wold not

As I am no Lingster [interpreter]  nor no pen [man] I hope your honour will [excuse] me I have wrot nothing but what they desired me I know we traiders is forbid troubling [Indian] Cuntrey Useles Talks but [as] he was Coming down I told him to Cary The Talk by word of mouth but they insisted I shold wright if i have done wrong I am sory for it and will write no more.

James Pampellone to James Grant, Apalachee, 26 April 1765.  JGP: R8; F185-186.

I received yours per Return of Burgess and am happy to find you are pleased with every thing I had done in regard to the Fort. The Repairs since done have been many and what I thought absolutely necessary, such as raising the walls of my fort three feet higher than before, also the top of my fort on the other side the Water, the only mark by which Vessels can well discern this place is raised thirteen feet higher than when I first came here. Fuel I have also enough to last me ten or twelve months, it was cut and brought down about eight or nine miles form the Fort. Enclos’d I send your Excellency a return of my provisions, which is very near expiring. My small species are all out they were only to last six months at first, and I husbanded them as well as I possibly could, therefore hope you’ll be kind enough to think of my Situation. The Indians have had as little as could well be helped, the whole they have had does not amount to more than nine pounds worth for 7 months, and are not in the least dissatisfied. Salt and Tobacco is much wanted here for them. The King’s Work’s at which my Men have been daily more or less in Number employed in, together with  what the Indians have had, have occasioned my being entirely out of Rum.

Had Mr. Rolle and his followers arrived here I should have fulfilled your Excellencies orders to the utmost of my powers. A Brig with a Considerable number of Families on board, belonging to him, attempted to get in here, three times, but were aground within a league of land and afterwards drove off by hard gales of Wind with the loss of his best lower Anchor, and obliged to put into Pensacola where I believe he still remains. The Captain is John Simon. I fancy you will find great difficulty in getting the Chiefs of the Lower Creeks to meet at Augustine. If your Excellency is any way disposed for Mirth imagine the enclosed may furnish you with some on account of the oddity of the Style. I received it lately from a Trader at the Pallochocolas. By Return of the Vessell I will if acceptable send your Excellency a dozen from Venisons home and hope they will prove to your liking. The Indians in my Neighbourhood are all quiet at present.

[P.S.] The Okonees, a town of the Lower Creeks, have quitted their first place and came within forty or fifty miles of me. There are nineteen families already settled and should be glad your Excellency would order this man to keep a watch over them, as it may be necessary to know what they are about.

James Grant to James Pampellone, St. Augustine, 15 May 1765. JGP: R1; F152-153.

Sir, I am favored with your Letter of the 26th April with a State of your Provisions enclosed, it was by no means necessary to send an Express upon that account, for as I knew the strength of the Garrison. Your Return of the 25th January was quite sufficient to compute to what time your men could be victualled without a fresh supply being sent to you.

In my Letter of the 5th February, I observed to you that there were Provisions sufficient for the Garrison for September next inclusive, that it was proposed to send a Vessel in the Month of June with a Supply, but desired you not to depend upon her arrival before the end of August or beginning of September. I am now to repeat the same thing to you. The Men only pay in Proportion for the Provisions they receive, it is therefore no hardship upon them not to receive compleat Rations in a Country where you have Fresh in Plenty, the Garrison here has been in that Situation tho’ there are nearer Supplys, you have Flour by your last Return for the 25th of September inclusive, and in case of Accidents as Major Ogilvie writes you the Men must only receive a Pound of Flour per Man. I have two Vessels building, one at Philadelphia, the other at Charles Town, and in case they should not be ready in time, I have directed a Vessel to be hired & sent form Charles Town on purchase more I cannot do.

I am Sorry to hear you gave Provisions to some People who were in Debt in this place, and run away out of the Province, which might have been Suspected as they had no Passport to Produce.

James Spalding to James Grant, St. John’s River Upper Store, 18 June 1765.
JGP: R8; F275-276.

Eight days ago an Indian fellow came to my home & staid about 24 hours & Said he had no news at this time there were no others there, but a few hours before he went off Some fellows came in whom he informed that Simpson the linguist at St. Marks & three other white men had been murdered by the Indians, which disturbed those at my house very much. Two days after seeing one Mr. Callwell with two servants (an Indian trader) from Georgia come to my Trading house by land with an intent to settle on little St. John’s about 30 miles or upwards to the West of Latchowa, they doubted the Truth of the above and appeared to be quieter. I was desirous of knowing the Truth of this information & sent [S]inclair my Interpreter with Mr. Callwell to Latchowa where he saw the Cowkeeper, the Long warrior & others who told him that two white men had been found dead on this Side St. Rose bay and as they knew of no other white men coming from Pensacola, but Simpson they conclude he is one and that they were killed by some of the Eufalla Town men, they likewise told him a Trader in the Upper towns was lately killed by a Tallapussy Indian and that the Nation in Generall Seems to be disturbed at the white people Settling in this province and West Florida. – the Messrs Rupell [Roupell] & Jarvis will give your Excellence a more particular Acct of this affair I thought it my duty to intrude this far. – in a few days if I am not very much deceived I shall bring the horse I spoke of.

James Grant to James Pampellone, St. Augustine, 7 July 1765. JGP: R1; F161.

As the East Florida Schooner is not yet arrived from Philadelphia, I send the Dependance Schooner Captain Barton Master, with a supply of Provisions for the Garrison at St. Marks, the Supply is not so considerable as I could wish, for the Vessel is small, calculate entirely for sailing and carried with difficulty forty Barrels of Flour and Ten Barrels of Pork, which I beg may be managed as well as possible till the arrival of the East Florida Schooner Captain Adam Bachop which you may look for about the End of November with a plentiful Supply of Provisions of all Kinds for twelve of fourteen Months, the Garrison for the future will always be well Supplied, as Captain Bachop will Sail from this regularly every Year, in the beginning of November, which is the proper Season to make a certain & short Passage.

If You should be tired of your Situation & wish to be relieved, it can easily be done in November, it was impossible to send an Officer at this time in room of Mr. Hawkins.

James Grant to Denys Rolle, St. Augustine, 8 July 1765. JGP: R1; F162-163.

The People who bring your Letters either do not return or they neglect calling at my house, which is the Reason of your not receiving answers to your two last Letters, that of the 6th Instant I was favored with last night and the Master of your Schooner tells me he returns tomorrow.

I have been so long acquainted with Indians & their Traders, that I do not easily give Credit to Reports, which are often Industriously spread by them, from Private news of Interest. The Murder of Simpson which you mention, may be true, Spalding Likewise writes me what he has heard of it, but I have yet received no certain information about it, and ‘till the fact is ascertained, if the Murder was supposed to have been committed in this Government, I could not take any notice of it, but as the case stands, if the Report of the Murder is founded, it will fall under the consideration of the Governor of West Florida and the Superintendent. My sending to Latchawa could have answered no end, but to make them believe that I considered them as parties in a thing with which they have not the most distant Connexion, pray do not pay the least attention to the Reports from Latchawa about your Settlement, those Indians as I have already told you, have not and are not even allowed to assist at the Councils of Head Men. I shall not thank the Indians for the Country to the eastward of St. John’s, I do not give Grants above Picolata, because I chuse to bring our Neighbors together in good humor, be as Civil to them as you Please, but say nothing about Settlements.

I am Glad to find that your expected Settlers are arrived in good health, after so long and tedious a Voyage I should have a bad opinion of any Planter, who endeavored to seduce them from you, but if they are not indented be assured that they will only stay with you as long as they find it their interest do so, I told you so when you first came into the Province, upon your complaining of what had happened at Charles Town, with regard to the Cabinet Maker and his Family, and the attorney Gen’l who I sent for upon receiving your Letter tells me, that he has already given you his Opinion upon it, and that you can have no Security for your Settlers, but by an agreement made with themselves and if it has been omitted in England you should endeavor to get it done without Loss of time, for they’l soon find out, that a Man with but a little Industry can contrive to make a Dollar a Day, at this hour I pay a Dollar & a half to a Carpenter, those Settlers tho’ brought out at your expence if they are not indented are free People upon their Landing, and the Attorney Gen’l says there is no Law in England or in any one Colony in America, by which they can be obliged to live with you, or to settle upon your Estate.

No Court of Judicature has any thing to do with the answer of your Letter, the Master of the Schooner at any rate is not therefore the Person to give an affidavit about them, if you wish to be provided with proper Materials to ascertain the arrival of your Settlers at this Province, in case your Compliance with the Terms of the Grant to be made out, in Obedience to His Majesty’s Order in Council, should hereafter be disputed, the Attorney Gen’l says that either you or your Agent should make Oath before a Justice of the Peace, that such a number of People arrived at such a time in the Province of East Florida, & were brought into the Province at your Expence in order to settle upon your Estate, and that you or your Agent should get a Certificate to that ropose from the Justice of the Peace, but those are points of Law with which I have really nothing to do. If Mr. Frank has finished his Survey according to his Instructions, either you or Mr. Lloyd with proper Power from you, should come into Town to take out your Grant.

John Stuart to James Grant, Charles Town, 22 July 1765. JGP: R13; F11-13.

As Soon as I had dispatched the Creeks at Pensacola, I embarked the 13th of June on my return here & arrived the 13th July after a very tedious & disagreeable Passage. I wrote Your Excellency from Pensacola a full Account of what had Passed which I sent by a safe hand to Lt. Pampillone to be forwarded to you, but lest it should be necessary I again give you a short view of our Transactions & as soon as I can will transmit you full accounts of all our proceedings.

The Mortar, Emistisiguo, & almost all the Principal Warriors of the Upper Creeks, with Captain Alleck, the Young Lieutenant [Escuchapé/Escochabe], & about fifty more Lower Creeks were at Pensacola. Nothing could have a more friendly appearance than our meeting, altho’ they Started at every Hind of Land that was thrown out. Their Jealousy upon that Head cannot well be expressed, I however explained the Necessity of fixing some distinct Boundary to prevent disputes, they confirmed & added to the Cession of Land by the Wolfe King to Captain  McKennan in September last, they renewed & ratified the Treaty entered into at Augusta, & Said that if they found their fears of our wanting to Possess their Lands Groundless, they would in a little time give a Larger tract of Country. I contracted an Intimacy with the Mortar, who at last Petitioned for a Medal and Commission which I Complied with & installed him on the King’s Birth Day, when the Guns were firing to Solemnize the Anniversary. I made five Great & five Small Medal Chiefs amongst the Tallipusses & Abikas & have reserved three of each to be given away at St. Augsutine [changed to Picolata, as explained below].

I did not forget to give the Mortar a Talk from you & an Invitation to go & See you, he excused himself from going to St. Augustine but Said that some Warriors of Rank properly Authorised by his part of the Nation would be there. Captain Alleck, the Young Lieutenant & the Lower Creeks promised to meet you & me at Picolata after the Busk upon their return to their Towns. They were to Consult & fix the Precise time of their meeting You, & to acquaint me with their determination by an Express, they choose Picolata on Account of the Pasturage of their Horses; The Transportation of Presents, Provisions, Rum &c. to Picolata may be Effected by St. Johns River & they refused Point Blank to go to St. Augustine. I endeavoured to Secure Captn Alleck’s Good Offices, but he Says that the Provinces are indebted to him 30 head of Cattle, which I gave him hopes of procuring provided we agreed Perfectly & could get a reasonable Tract of Land Granted at the Congress.

Mr. Johnstone fell Short of Shrouds, Blankets & Shirts, but had enough of other Articles. The Victualling Expences, Payment of Interpreters, mending Arms & other Contingent Expences attending the Congress at Pensacola amounted to upwards of £1700 Sterling for which Governor Johnstone & I drew jointly upon the Treasury. The Indians who met us upon that occasion amounted to Six hundred & they consumed double rations, their demands for rum were incessant and they had a very considerable quantity. Your Excellency will be pleased to advise me as soon as possible whether or not Provisions can be procured at St. Augustine, & what may be necessary to purchase & send round from this place, and in general of the steps proper to be pursued by me, before I sett out from hence. Time will not permit me to enlarge, the Vessel being ready to sail. Should no opportunity for writing immediately Offer; I hope to hear from Your Excellency by Express.

James Pampellone to James Grant, St. Mark’s, 23 Jul 1765. JGP: R8; F34-35.

Having received from Capt Stuart a Letter for your Excellency by way of Pensacola which was desired to be forwarded immediately by Express, have accordingly sent my Servant with my horses with order to make all dispatch. I first endeavored to procure an Indian but could not get one. I next applied to the traders, but their demand was so mad and extravagant that I chose to deny it at once, they asked [for] £16 Sterling [plus expenses and provisions]. I thought it therefore more advisable to send a Servant of my own.

The Garrison pursuant to orders recd has been a long time at one pound of flour & two rations of pork each man per week, which will at that rate last till the latter end of August and no further. The Casks of Flour and pork not answering near their weight, as the Commissary informs me.

Had I imagined that persons passing by this Fort in their way to Pensacola were to show Passports from your Excellency [I] should certainly not have let those people that came in the Boat pass further; but did not imagine I could lawfully detain people of whom, or whose concerns, I had no manner of knowledge of.

Inclosed is a return of the State of my Garrison. My Neighbours round me are all quiet and peaceable.

[P.S.] Through what number of hands Capt Stuart’s packet may have past before I rec’d it [I] cannot indeed say, but [I] send it [to] your Excellency in [the] same form [in which] I received it.

James Grant to John Stuart, St. Augustine, 10 August 1765.  JGP: R1; F173-174.

Dear Sir, Your Letter of the 5th June by the Ferret, I had the Pleasure to receive some time ago, and was glad to find that the Indian affairs to the Westward had been brought to a happy conclusion. Yours of the 22 Ultimo was put into my hands by Bachop. I was glad to hear of your safe Arrival at Charles Town, and give you joy of getting back to your family after a long absence and a fatiguing campaign, tho’ not quite so bad as Fort Loudon. The Account you sent to Mr. Pampellone, has not yet been forwarded to me; indeed he very seldom has an Opportunity of writing to this Place, so that it would have been better to send the account to Charles Town, but the best and most satisfactory one you can give will be to come yourself, and therefore I send the East Florida Schooner to attend you, in which you will be very well accommodated, and Capt Bachop has my orders to take care of the Superintendant. I brought a good assortment of Indian Presents from England, and have hitherto given them away with a very sparing hand, that I might be able to make the better figure at our Congress. Picolata will be attended with no great Inconvenience. My schooner will carry Presents, Rum and Provisions enough, and will come to an Anchor opposite to the Fort, and when the time comes, I shall order Cattle to be drove to Picolata, that our Friends may have Salt or fresh Provisions, as they like best, the sooner you come the better, that we may talk our Affairs over, and that every thing may be got in Readiness for their Reception. Immediately after your Arrival here, I will put every thing on Board the Schooner, and send her round to Picolata, toward the arrival of the Indian Princes. You know they are sometimes impatient & won’t easily understand a Delay, on account of a Vessel which you know might happen, & in that case I should not have it in my Power to supply them with Bread if our Meeting is numerous. Beef would not be wanting as they carry themselves, but for any thing else Land Carriage is Impracticable.

Those Creek Princes must not start so much at a hint about land in this Province we have a right to Claim a part of it but as Demands no doubt should & must be moderate, a good Interpreter will be necessary, Elihiones who you appointed is still here, but there should certainly be two, if you have not one with you, we can easily pick one up at Latchaway. Our Congress will not be so numerous as that at Pensacola and I am Glad of it for I will not exceed the Sum voted by Parliament, besides very firm Injunctions from Mr. Grenville not to draw upon the Treasury without having first advised them to the Service and received Permission to carry that Service into Execution, have since received an Order to that Purpose from the Secretary of State, and that Order is so very strict that even the Commander in Chief has no Latitude left to him. I dare say your Bills & Governor Johnstone’s will be payed & approved of, as the Service could not be postponed, but besides those Bills, I have heard of large Draughts being made for the Indian Service from the Western World.

Brigadier Bouquet writes me that he has been positively ordered to proceed directly to Pensacola, for reasons which you know better than I do. Mr. Bouquet says if ‘tis possible he will pass his Winter at St. Augustine and my good Friend I should expect that you will do the same thing, for I think you had become an East Floridian.

I am Sorry the Mortar is not to attend, I have a desire to be acquainted with that Indian, & I think we should have been Friends. . . .

James Grant to Henry Bouquet, St Augustine, 11 August 1765. JGP: R1; F178-179.

Your Letters of the 10th May and 20th June I have had the pleasure to receive. I wish you could have contrived to come in my Schooner, directly to this place, if I had been informed of your appointment before Bachop went to Philadelphia, he should have had Orders to that effect. His calling at Charles Town might have been put off, his only Business there was to bring me some Lumber, which was wanted for a small Farm house, which I am building next this Town, where I shall be glad to make you welcome this Winter, at any time when you become tired of the Noise & hurry of the Capital of East Florida.

A House will be early got for you here, I do not chuse to putt you to the expence of hiring one, ‘till I am absolutely certain of your passing the Winter here, which you are kind enough to do, tho’ you do not seem to be quite determined upon the measure.

When Mr. Bartram comes, I shall shew him every Civility in my Power, I shall want his Assistance more than he will mine, for I am deeply engaged in the Botanical way, for the Duke of Cumberland and Lord Bule, having received very extensive Commissions form both of them.

A Communication by Land to Appalaché, I mean a good Road, will be attended with Difficulty, tho’ if Government agree to a proposal which I have made for purchasing a Number of Negroes to carry on the Publick works of the Province, that Town with many others for the good of the Infant Colony may be carried into Execution, which without the help of Slaves, will for many Years be impracticable.

The Discoveries which have hitherto been made in this Peninsula, are of little Importance, the Spaniards knew very little of the Interior parts of the Country, the Accounts of American Woods Men you know are little to be depended upon, but upon the whole from what can be collected from these sort of Reports and the appearance of the Country, as far as our Surveyors have got, I think there is little room to doubt, but there should be a Water Communication all over the Province, sufficient for the produce of the Country, though that may not amount to a Passage through, the Spanish Drafts are exceedingly erroneous. I thought I had got a Prize, when I found some of them in this Province, amongst the Plans & Charts brought from the Havannah by Lord Albemarle, but they are not worth a farthing. . . .

James Grant to James Pampellone, St. Augustine, 24 August 1765.
JGP: R1; F185-186.

I am obliged to you for forwarding Mr. Stuart’s letter. I have given him some Presents, to the Indians for the use of his horses, & something to himself for his Troubles. You did very right not to comply with the Demand of the Traders there was nothing pressing in Mr. Stuart’s (Letter) & the Expence of an Express should be avoided, except in cases of Absolute Necessity, which very seldom occur in time of (Peace) but you did exceeding right to send one as the Superintendant desired it.

Tis to be hoped the Dependance Pilot Boat, arrived at St. Marks soon after the Express left it, the Supply of Provisions was not considerable, but will be sufficient ‘till the East Florida Schooner, carries you a further Supply in Winter, I propose sending her from here with fourteen Months Provisions for your Garrison about the beginning of November you will have an Opportunity of writing to your Friends, by some of the Indian Traders, who come to attend the Congress & if you want any thing to be sent from hence, you should desire your Correspondence profit of the opportunity of the East Florida, as no other Vessel will sail from hence to St. Marks for a Year.

I never said that you should ship or detain any Person or Persons (camping) at St. Marks, who could not show Passports from me, such a Ship would be illegal & improper in the highest degree, I wrote you that People going from this Place to Pensacola, who had no Passport to produce might be suspected and surely upon their Accounts they were not entitled to your assistance but at the same time you could not stop them if you had even been informed of their running away.

The Indians promised Capn Stuart to meet me at Picolata after their Green Corn Dance is over. I know they are slow in their Motions, & have therefore sent a Talk to their Head Men by an Indian, to invite them & to induce them to keep their Appointment. They promised to come in August. I do not expect the Distance is too great, I shall be ready to receive them, but the end of September or beginning of October, I fancy, is as soon as I can look for them. Encourage them to come when you have an Opportunity of seeing them, tell Forrest the Indian Trader that I expect he will be diligent in executing the Orders he received from the Superintendent to attend the Men to Picolata if the Congress is not over before the first of November. I shall again be distressed on Account of your Garrison for I cannot dispense with the Schooner until the Congress, she must carry up the River St. Johns to Picolata Presents Provisions Rum &ca. for the Indians.

You’l be able to judge when the Congress will take Place and if you find the Indians delay it longer than I expect I must beg of you to manage the Provisions sent by the Dependance as well as possible in future there never will be the least Difficulty in the Article of Provisions because the Vessel will sail regularly ever year in the beginning of November & at that time the Winds are always favorable.

James Pampellone to James Grant, St. Mark’s, 16 September 1765. JGP: R9; F100.

In my other Letter inclos’d  I explained every [thing] that I could think of. In this, [I] beg you would not be angry at me for having so acted, as I had all the reason in the world to apprehend some Accident had happen’d to Capt Barton. My Servant’s Unfortunate missing his road (owing intirely  to my Interpreter) his being afterwards kept twelve days by the Indians had been the whole occasion of this Misfortune, had not that happen’d should have had timely intelligence of the Dependance having sailed. I could not have done otherwise than I did, the Men upon the Charter having told my Officer and me that they were determin’d to complain against us, if I did not make use of so favourable an opportunity. I did everything as I thought for the best therefore hope I shall not incur your displeasure. Enclosed [are] two papers one sign’d by myself the other by Mr. Hawkins, who was consulted and found it requisite. Accordingly, detain’d the Vessell as long as I could in expectation of the other. . . .

Ensign John Hawkins, 9th Regiment, to James Grant, St. Mark’s, 16 Sep 1765.
JGP: R9; F102.

I do hereby declare that in the Present Exigency of the Garrison it is necessary and for the good of the service to send The Vessel to Pensacola for Provisions.

James Pampellone to James Grant, St. Mark’s, 16 Sep 1765. JGP: R9. F105.

This is to Certify that the Provisions of his Majesties Fort at St. Mark’s being overly expended on the last of the Month of August. The Troops having been till that time on the Allowance of five pounds of Bread per week and three ounces of Pork per day, without any of the small Species (and they having likewise frequently complain’d of the same to their Officer), it was found absolutely necessary to send to Pensacola for a supply, the better to provide against all accidents, as well as for the Security of the said Garrison and preservation of the Troops. It was therefore adjudged and found necessary to take up in the Governments Employ a Vessel for the said purpose and dispatch her as quick as possible, having no appearance of a Vessel from St. Augustine with timely supplies. In witness whereof I have sign’d this paper to Certify the Same.

James Pampellone to James Grant, St. Mark’s, 16 September 1765.
JGP R9; F108-110.

I had the honour of receiving both your Excellencies Letters at one and the same time. My Servant coming in sight at same [time] as the Vessell, she being seen off about [September 8]. Before that time I was reduc’d so low, that I had only one Barrell of flour in my store having been at the allowance of three pound & half of bread per week & three ounces of Pork per day. Towards the latter end of August a Schooner from Pensacola arriv’d here, which brought me one Barrell of Rice & one of Pork for my own uses, those I immediately threw into the stores & one Barrell more I got from the Vessel & half a Barrell of Rice. For this shall draw upon the Government. I detained the Vessell till such time as the above said provisions were within some days of being expended in hopes of seeing your Vessell arrive. But having reason to be somewhat apprehensive was oblig’d to Charter the same Schooner back to Pensacola on September 11, and sign’d the Charter party for £46.13.4 and wrote word of the same to General Gage.

The Men have of late call’d frequently for me upon the point and mention’d it was hard for them to fatigue themselves and wear out their Necessaries in the manner they did for want of provisions in peaceable times. This murmuring daily [increased] and apprehending matters might come to a greater extremity, thought it prudent to act in the manner I did having so favourable an opportunity.

I had before the Arrival of the Schooner sent up my Interpreter with a Soldier to buy me Corn in order to help out . . . but they did not return till a Week after her Arrival. What they brought was therefore of little use to me.

The Dependance had a passage of two months wasting her days so that Capt Barton has oblig’d to break open one of the Flour Casks. There remains thirty nine & ten of Pork. He has had fifty weight more and pretty near as much Pork.

His Number of Men are augmented by two Prisoners & one Captain [&] one private to take care of them. The two Soldiers on board that Vessell having their Arms with them made me think it unnecessary to send more as by that means I weaken my Garrison. Every thing has been done that I could think of for the good of this place. The Capt & Mr. Bachop can inform you of what more is necessary to be done, & on which I can’t proceed till I have orders. Am greatly oblidge[d]  to your Excellency for your many kind favours and shall always retain some sense of them. In regard to the Change I hear is to be made, I am quite easy, if it an account of my fault I am willing to abide by the Chance sensible. I have not neglected my Duty to you Sir, or my Superiors.

There is one thing I beg leave to observe to your Excellency[:] that you will never get any good from the Traders unless some method is fallen on to make them obedient. You desire me to tell Forrest to make haste down. I might perhaps receive such another answer as on Capn Stuart’s account, in which I was told that he knew his business as well as I did mine, that he should obey none of my orders neither come near me. I cannot therefore acquaint you in what disposition the Indians are concerning the Congress. I fear but few will go. Such as I have spoke to assured me they would. I have heard that the Lt. of the Cowettas refus’d Forrest & his present, & was very angry. The Indians are all quiet and Satisfied the greatest part are gone a Hunting. Have always used them as well as I could when they came down here. Inclos’d is the state of my Garrison the Provisions you know yourself Sir, therefore need not mention it.

[P.S.] Andrew Barnett having been very careful of my Servant both in his going and coming back here beg’d the Superintendant to take it into consideration and do something for the poor man. Andrew Barnett is just now come from the New Town call’d Tossaquine, he informs me that the Headmen are all getting their provisions in readiness to come down when call’d, imagine there will be a great number.

Robert Roberts to Charter arriving at Apalachee, St. Mark’s, 16 September 1765. JGP R9; F110.

You will not at your arrival here, from Pensacola, land any individual thing till orders from one Lieutenant James Pampellone, Commanding at Apalaché. Your are likewise not to bring any Rum to the said port of Apalache or any goods that are Contraband or prohibited by Acts of Parliament. Your acting contrary to this shall be at your own & proper risqué.

James Pampellone to James Grant, St. Mark’s, circa 17 September 1765.
JGP R9; F112

I beg your Excellency will see and do me justice concerning that deceitful Villain Simpson who without my leave or liberty has purloin’d himself off. I imagine it has been put in his head by other people. He carried his deceit extremely well on, altho’ I told him if he waited a little he should have my Liberty. I dare say your Excellency will be kind enough to see into this, and mention it to Capt Stuart, as he did it without my orders.

Moody can acquaint you with all about it. I fear he may attempt to make the Indian stop him

James Pampellone to James Grant, St. Mark’s, 17 September 1765. JGP R9; F101.

Andrew Barnett the Bearer of this packett, will be able to inform you of the Road between this place and your town having been order’d to take particular notice of it by me. He is a man much beloved by all the Indians I have yet heard speak of him. As Your Excellency wanted to know about the Road [I] think him a proper person to give you Intelligence. I have mention’d to your Excellency that I understood I was to be relieved, if Col. Taylor chuses it, and your Excellency is not displeas’d at my conduct since my having been here, [I] am well satisfied to stay. I could indeed wish the removal of the other Gentlemen. . . . 

James Pampellone to James Grant, St. Mark’s, 11 October 1765. JGP: R9; F106-107.

Since my last by Forrest, the Schooner arriv’d here from Pensacola, that I had the honor of mentioning to your Excellency, Governor Johnstone having been informed by a Spanish Vessell that I had got a supply sent no provisions in her. He informs me in his Letter that he was to enter a protest against her, for arriving loaded with skins, likewise desires from me to know what right an Interpreter has to trade. Simpson will be with your Excellency near as soon as this Letter which I dispatch by my Servt. Should be greatly obliged to you for sending back. The Interpreter comes to you about it. Also an account of some Rum I seiz’d on the Charter, [the] party is not paid upon the above mention’d account and gave my reason to the Merchant in my Letter. Inclos’d I send your Excellency a paper sign’d by the Master of the Vessell wherein he was not to bring any Rum to this place, notwithstanding which having a suspicion that there was some on board for some person or other took my measures accordingly and about ten or eleven at night my men seiz’d it as they were selling it up to the Interpreters. I have it in my Store and there [it] will remain till further orders from your Excellency. The Vessell being in the King’s Service don’t apprehend any person had a right to put things on board her. Their Landing it so late at night made it appear much worse. The other affair is his trading to which I put a Stop till I know your pleasure.

My Servant will acquaint your Excellency of any transactions that you may think proper to inquire into. Should for many reasons be extremely glad if it would suit your conveniency, to see the Schooner arrive about the latter end of November or the Beginning of December. I mention’d to your Excellency in my Letter by Andrew Barnett, some affair concerning my Men, it was on that Account Sir, I forbid any more rum coming to the fort, finding they did not know how to behave themselves when any Indulgence was shown them. Had not I given my Consent to the Interpreter, he would have taken his own at all events, but how Such a thing would have turn’d out afterwards is best known to you Sir. Whatever he has to alledge against me hope your Excellency will be kind enough to let me know as I shall be ready to answer it.

I have at present twenty eight Barrells of flour & five of Pork.

James Grant to John Stuart, St Augustine, 15 December 1766. JGP: R2; 17-19.

A few days ago, I had the pleasure to receive your Letter of [November 15] with the Enclosures referred to, before you can receive my Answer, it is probable that Roderick McIntosh will be set out with your Talk to the Head Men of the Upper Creek Nation, in consequence of the late Murder of Goodwin and Davies, committed by one of their Parties which had been set out against the Choctaws, but as you desired, I shall make a few remarks upon the present State of the Creek Nation, tho’ in fact I have very little to add to my Letter of the 21 August, last, to you upon that Subject.

It appears from Charles Stuarts Letter, that when Susman the Interpreter and Lang the Trader carried the Account of the Murder to Pensacola they informed him at the same time that the Indian Party had endeavoured to disfigure the Scalps, so as to make them pass for Indian ones, in order to conceal their Guilt & to deceive their own Nation, the Young Mens looking upon the Murder as a Crime, is sufficient proof that it is not the Intention of the Creeks to differ with the King’s Subjects, but that proof is strengthened by the Disposition of the Head Men to apprehend and give up the Guilty Indians Dead or Alive, and by the Report of Susman and Lang that the whole Nation was uneasy at what had happened, and afraid of our Resentment, and if your late Intelligence from Augusta is true that the Creeks had killed one fellow and were in pursuit of Another, who they are determined likewise to kill, surely we cannot ask or expect greater Satisfaction for the Murder of Goodwin and Davies, and it would be impolitick in us to examine too minutely into former Disputes and Differences.

The Dignity of a powerfull Nation is by no means concerned in Indian Transactions, the Interest not the Honor of Great Britain & its Colonies is to be considered upon such Occassions. The French had great Influence over the Indians from the Education of the Canadian Officers, we must allow that they were likely to understand the Management of them. Their Family Connections with the Indians gave them Weight, and as they Spoke their Language as fluently as their own, we may suppose that they execute the Orders they received from their Voyageurs being frequently Murdered by the Indians. The French as often demanded satisfaction, if the Opportunity was favorable they insisted upon it, if not they postponed their Resentment, but they very seldom carried that Resentment so high as to commence Hostilities with a whole Nation, because a few Individuals deserved Punishment, which by the way no man in the Nation has a Power to Inflict as they have no coercive Power amongst them, only a sort of Club Law, or general Agreement that it is right, that such a fellow should Die; and the French by waiting with Patience, ‘till the Indians were in good Humor with them, or ‘till the offending Nation found it their Interest, to pay Court to them, often obtained Satisfaction. Two or three Guilty Indians were at times but very seldom sent to Montreal to be put to Death, I knew of three, one of them was executed, the other two were pardoned, and sent back to their Nation by Monsieur de Vaudreuil, but the French were too Politick to lose the Trade of an Indian Nation, or to expose their Settlements to Indian Attacks, in order to revenge the Death of a few wandering Woodsmen.  Accidents of that kind are not more extraordinary than Robberys  upon the high Way, and can as little be prevented, therefore we should not be alarmed when they happen, and we should expect them to happen at times.

It was no doubt good Policy formerly to engage one Indian Nation to go to War with another, the more they were weakened the better for us, because knowing their Interest, they were disposed to favor the French as the least powerfull Nation; but since the Conquest of Canada and the Floridas, Britain has no contending Power upon this Continent, and of Course our Indian System must be very different. It is so much so in my opinion, that I regret the Loss of every Indian, as I think with Temper and proper care they may soon be made very usefull Subjects to Great Britain, indeed they are so already in many Respects. In this late affair of the Murder we should not look upon the Lower Creeks as being Concerned, they take very little if any part in the Chactaw War, they are gone out to Hunt as usual, they behave remarkably well to every body they meet in the Woods, they carry Plenty of Provisions to the Garrison of St. Marks, and both Mr. Wright the Commanding Officer there and Simpson the Interpreter write me that the Indians are quiet, friendly, and obliging. Their Letters are Dated the 27th of November. It will therefore be very prudent to make a Distinction in our Treatment of the Upper and Lower Creeks, and Presents to the Lower Creeks at this time may be a means of securing their Affections, at any rate I am determined to keep well with them if Possible and shall call them together to receive Presents at Picolata in April or May next. I mentioned February or March but shall postpone it in hopes that you will be recovered and able to come here, before I send a Talk to invite them, but they are already informed that they are to be invited.

The Indians can with great ease stop the Settlement of this Province, and make the Inhabitants of this Town very uneasy, and as we can do no harm to those same Indians, if I can prevent it, there shall be no Scalping betwixt the Appalachicola River and St. Mary’s. As to the consequences of a Creek War with regard to the other Provinces, I am convinced that South Carolina would hardly be able to protect its Frontiers, nay a part of that Frontier would certainly be laid waste, so far is that Province from being in a Situation to assist or contribute in carrying on an Offensive War. If Georgia is not protected by the Kings Troops many of the Plantations must be abandoned, for they are not able to defend themselves, and I need not tell you that the Floridas would cease to have an existence. On the contrary if we live in Peace with our Neighours this Province will soon ‘tis to be hoped, become a usefull Country, many Plans are formed for its Cultivation, and ‘tis to be hoped will succeed. £60,000 Sterling will probably be laid out next Year by the English Grantees, upon hearing Doctor Turnbulls Report. My Opinion you may see is very strongly for Pacifick Measures. I have made three Indian Campaigns, and know the Difficulties attending them, but if a War should be determined upon the whole Expence in the end will fall upon Great Britain, it did so in the Cherokee War, for the Money laid out by Carolina did not save the Crown a Shilling. The case would be more so if possible in a Creek War, for that Province would not be so deeply concerned.

As to our Allies, the Chactaws, Chickasaws, Cherokees and Catawbas, they must be greater Fools that I take them for if they would concur heartily to extirpate the Creeks, and if they did, it would be the work of many Tears, during which time the Southern Provinces would be cut up. If our Allies give us their assistance we must feed them, for joined with small parties of Provincials & Regulars they will do nothing of consequence, a War carried on in that way must be tedious & would be destructive to us, much more than to the Indians. At Arms length they will always have the Advantage. We must get near them to hurt them, that must be done with a numerous body of Troops & at great Expence, one Campaign would cost more Money, than would keep the Indians in humor for twenty Years if properly laid out in Presents. . . .

George Swettenham to James Grant, December 1765, Apalachee. JGP: R25; F23-25.

I arrived here 9 December after a tiresome Journey, occasioned by my having had bad horses. . . . Traveled nigh twenty miles in water, eight or nine of them in the night, the last thirty miles is by much the worst of the whole road. The Consequence of the other Gentlemen’s carying through Hammocks was that they did not arive till the 13th; I left them about a hundred ( ? ) miles from this place at an Indian village called little Savannah. the day after I left them I overtook a party of Indians, with the three French men & my friend Acatchee. My friend lent me a fresh horse & promised he would leave venison in the path for the Gentlemen that were coming after he accordingly kept his word, they found the Venison & arived safe without fasting one day. I have never once met the Indians they were very sivil, Tonypee [Tunapé] helped me in geting horses over a rapid river, another Indian asisted the Gentlemen at the same place, They all seemed very well satisfied, & highly pleased with the presents they got at the Congress. One of the French men (the Beaker) beged I would let him oposit to me I told him I had no objection but that it would be impossible for him to keep oposit to me as he was afoot, & I intended to ride from daylight to dark, he said he was certain he could and accordingly set out, the first night I asked him what could be his reason for undertaking so tiresome a journey when he could travel more at his ease with the Indians & be always assured of meat, he said that since the second day after he left Picolata he had always been in dread of his life, for that the old Frenchman (had he not prevented it) would have killed an Indian that lay drunk in the path, taken his horse and set of for Georgia. It seems very extraordinary but this is the account he give me, & he realy walked as if affraid for he keeped up all throug. He left this [place] with Acatchee who has promised to carry him to Pensicola. They in the Schooner will have sailed before you receive this letter if not I don’t know what to do, The last of the pork has been served this day to the men which does not compleat each man to one ration pr. week, the only provision kind now in the store is six Barrels of Flour which at two rations (the alowance they have been at for some time) will not last longer than three weeks. The Indians will not come in as we have nothing to give them in exchange for their Venison; all the Indian presents I have received here cannot be worth ten pounds, if the men had bread & port the Indians would trade with them, or if I had a little rum, present, and baubels I could bring them about the Fort & then we would get meat, but we are at present . . . realy miserable. I can say no more on the subject but hope you will consider us and if the Vessel has not sailed will be much obliged to you for some rum for Indians as there is nothing they are more pressing for. I have not had an oportunity as yet of seeing any horses, if I should meet any ( ?) you may depend on it I will get some for your Town.

James Grant to General Gage, St. Augustine, 13 January 1766. JGP: R1; F290.

Your Excellency's Letter of the 13th November I have had the honor to receive and I am glad to find that the Steps Taken in consequence of Mr. Sherdley's Conduct have met with your Approbation.

I have informed the Father of the whole Transaction, but have not yet received his Answer. Luckily for him and his Family the young Man died at Frederica in Georgia very soon after he left this place.

The Indians by a Treaty already signed at Picolata the 18th of November last have give up a very considerable Territory to His Majesty, more than will be settled in all probability for many Years. They were at first refractory, but upon finding that they were treated with Indifference, & even with a degree of Contempt they became Civil & Obliging & agreed to every thing I proposed.

After the Limits were fixed I loaded them with Presents & provisions. We parted upon extraordinary good terms, & the Officer who went from hence to St. Mark's [George Swettenham] after the Congress writes me that they behaved with great Attention to him upon the Road, & seemed to be much pleased with the presents which had been given to them.

The Cowkeeper our nearest Neighbour, has lately been here for a Week, with Sixty Attendants. He was absent from the Congress on Account of the Sickness of his Family, he came to be made a great Medal Chief, to receive his proportion of presents for the Country which had been ceded, & to assure me of his friendship & good Intentions...

...I am sorry to mention to Your Excellency that Lieut. Pampillonne who Commanded at St. Mark's, hired a Vessel to bring Provisions to his Garrison from Pensacola, tho' he had been particularly informed by me, at what time a Supply was to be sent from hence & the provision Vessel from this Place got to St. Mark's within a Week of the time which I had mentioned, tho' She had a remarkable Slow passage of two Months; Governor Johnstone, having been informed that the St. Mark's Garrison had received a Supply from this place, Refused to send Provisions from Pensacola, so that the Vessel hired by Mr. Pampillonne returned empty to St. Mark's, How he is to pay for her I know not, But I have shewn Brigadier Taylor Copys of the letters which I wrote with regard to provisions, & they are as clear as it was possible for me to make them...

George Swettenham to James Grant, Apalachee, 13 January 1766. JGP: R10; F19.

You may imagine that I was not a little affected at Forister [Forrester] the Interpreter’s letting in the Garison that your Schooner was ashore in the mouth of the river St. John’s. I could have spared this piece of inteligence and was by no means agreeable to the present situation of the Garison. There is but one Barrel of flour in the store, and the men have Conserved at half a pound of bread per day since [January 10]. This is not the season that the fish jump into Canoes, nor has there been one Catched in that way since my arival , very few any way, for it has been so cold that they will not bite, neither can the men bear it long; we have had some snow, and [it] is two or three inches thick. The Indians very much know that I have nothing to give them; therefore it is with great difficulty and some expence to myself that I persuade a few of them at times to bring in some Venison. I have them always to dine with me a thing they have not been used to, and I promise them handsome presents as soon as the Vessel arrives, which I hope your Excellency has put in my power to perform. I take every method in my power to prevent the men from gambling and diserting but I cannot totally [prevent] it. At Christmas day three of my men went off, but in less then five hours they were brought back by Mr. Wright, there happened to be two Indians at the Interpreter’s at the time they were missed, I got them to go with him and they soon come upon their tracks though in the dark . I believe my having Catched those prevents many others from attempting something of the same kind. When I mentioned Forister I forgot to tell your Excellency that he was very disatisfied and said he was not suffitiently paid for his trouble at the congress. If your Schooner should not have sailed which I hope is not the case, I hope you will send me some rum & paint, and make an adition to the presents, as I got so very little here. Please to [speak] to Bachop to cary some very fine ceder posts that I will send to you & the Colonell.

George Swettenham to James Grant, Apalachee, 31 January 1766. JGP: R10; F57-58.

I never in my life was more uneasy for any mistake that ever I committed than I am at present. I can sincerely hope for forgiveness whilst I beg it & must rely solely on your good nature to pardon me. You will see by my former letters the situation this garison was in for want of provision. Guess then my joy at the arival of the East Florida. Whilst my Spirits were much Elivated Capt. Bachop delivered me a [packet] of Letters, all of which I immediately opened without exception, & without looking at the directions of any, taking it for granted they were all for myself. Pray Sir . . . forgive me & you will make me very happy. I will be upon my oath I don’t know the Contents of Sr. John Lindsay’s  letter; and I will take particular pains that he shall receive it, writeing the best apology I can, & if you can sincerely pardon me, I must beg that when you write to him again you will say something for me. [I have not] been able to send it Express but it is probable in a little time (by the means of my friend Tonape) I shall present a safe one, it will be expensive as there will be two imployed & the reason Simpson gives me for this is that if one should be taken sick or drownded or any such accident happen the other might aquaint his friends with it, I must say I think him a very bad hand at makeing a bargin. You cannot conceive the trouble I have with my Copper Neighbours, nothing will satisfie them, neither will they give thanks for anything but rum and provisions, & you know they are the things I can least spare; after a Fellow has live with me four or five days he is dissatisfied if he does not carry away rice, flour, rum, in short they thought that on the arrival of the Schooner they were to have any thing they asked for, an instance of which I will tell you. [On January 27] there came in a runner acquainting me that the King of the New town with twenty of his train were coming in, & desired that I would send him a Keg of rum to drink upon the path (he neither brought Turkeys or Venison). I told the Runner that I had not sent for him, & that I could not spare so much. I likewise told him that when I did he must not bring so many Attendants, that I might be the better able to entertain him. In a little time the King & [his men] arrived, he told me that he was poor for bread & was come to live with me. I answered that if he had brought Meat the Soldiers would exchange bread for it, he then Changed the discourse and said that he had come to aquaint Sympson that he had prevented some of the young people from breaking open his store at the New town, this I believe was his business, but Sympson wanted to throw him on me. Capt. Bachop was present at all this & I refer you to him for an account of the trouble he has seen me have, and the impossibility there is to please them without rum, or even with it. What I have always told Sympson to get them to do, and what in my opinion would make them of use to us is, that they should bring in their meat sell it to the men (who will always take care to save [some] of their rations & purchase it) and then go away but he would be glad they would settle a town here in order to ensure their trade; was I to incourage this & give them what they aske the provisions that might last the Garison twelve months would not hold out more than four or five, they would be forever Idle about the Fort, & forever begging & stealing. It is most likely that about the time you mention I shall wish most heartily to be relieved, therefore shall be extremely obliged to you for your interest, however as Wright, and Dyerson are very good lads, I believe I shall be as happy as the place will admit it. The Round of Beef for which I am much obliged to you answers the description you give of it, & I shall eat your health most heartily. I will supose that Tonape is not fond of any thing salt.

You will see by my former letter that I intended sending you and the Colonel some cedar posts, I had a few when Bachop arriv’d, but I have been getting all I could ever since, I can’t exactly as yet [say] how many there will be but I will give the Captain an account before he sails. Do assure you it is very inconvenient to put them on board as the Vessell is a great way down the river, & I have [no] great way to fetch them without proper boats. I must beg you will [accepy] a small box of wallnuts. By my former letters you’ll judge how things were at my arival, at present (over the Barracks repaired) I should think myself tolerably well of Terms, the men with [a] Common allowance of Flour and three pounds of Porck per Week. You may expend upon it that my study should be to keep things quiet, & I will do every thing in my power to please the Indians, without courting them too much (as you direct) indeed I don’t think it right to humour them in all they ask. I have heard that St. Augustine is more likely to flourish than ever, that women are crowding into it, and that no evening passes without a party, to all here this gives great pleasure.

James Burgess to George Swettenham, somewhere in the Creek nation, 5 May 1766. JGP: R10; F183-184.

I take this Opportunity to Ackuaint You As we understand that ther was at Vesel Cast away ney [near] the Mouth of the Natison river And that sum [some] of the forks Indins came a Crose them And ciled [killed] Tow [two] of ther Men And One boy Wich Made three And it Semes that the White Pepole ciled Two of the Indin Wiman. So the falows [fellows] Came home to ther Twn [town] And thretned to cill Sum of ous that Is Amoung them. Only sum of the Other hindred them And Lickwise thretned to taeke Satisfackson. At your Fort you Nede Not Let On Aney thing About it . . . [nor] To the Indins. But Ceep a Sharp luck [look] And To taek Care how your Peple Geo about. The Chacktawss Indins is At war with the Ouper [Upper] Indins I Mene the Ouper Cricks the Berer of this has Ben To Pancoley [Pensacola] And has Brought the Pachet that the felow Buley Returned By Forest So that what Ever the Buley was to have this Man Expecks to Get it.

I think it Wold Be right if you Thought fitt to Send And Se About them Pepole that is Cast away For the Por Sowls May Be ther In Destres when they Maight Be Saved thow you will See As you thnk fite I her A Good Dele of Talkes in the Natison Onley I am Not Sartin whither it is True or Now [not]t. I  have Rote Out to know All the Talks ther Wher ther is Aney thing in it Or know [n0t] And when Returns Comes to Me i will Let you know of it All[.] if You Plese to Sent Me Sum Paper for this is All i have

George Swettenham to James Grant, Apalachee, May 1766. JGP: R10; F198-200.

I never in my life was more pleased than at your raillery, when you were good enough to impute my mistake in opening Sir John Lindsay’s letters as a thing natural to a man born to the westward of England, & particularly in Derry. About ten days after Bachop sailed my friend Acatche arived here with a letter from Gouvernour Johnston for Mr. Pompilone I immediately bargained with him to return it with your letter & enclosed it to the Gouvernour writing Sr. John the best apology I was capable of. I have since received a letter from the Gouvernour in which he says that when he received mine Sir John Lindsay was at Jamaica, and that he had since received a letter from him aquainting him that he was to sail in a few days for England where he would forward yours by the first opportunity.

I will have followed your advice in regard to planting as fare as in my power. I have about three or four Akers under corn Pumpkins & [?]. Almost every soldier has a little place or Garden, & had the season not been remarkably wet I think there would have been a fine crop; It is all a fresh Marsh round the Fort and it has been over flowed several times, notwithstanding. I hope still to make a good deal, this Marsh is as fine Rise [rice] land as any in the world In short the Countery all about is fit to produce any thing; I really am not jesting. . . . I have now got a pretty good stock of provitions [provisions], I will do every thing in my power, & to hope I shall prevent the Garison’s ever being in the same situation as when I found it. I am extremely sorry for my friend Dunnet’s indisposition, I have heard by some of my letters that he is returned but very little the better for his Voige [voyage]; I must beg you will make him my Compliments & tell him he has my best wishes for his Recovery.

I read Simpson the paragraf of your letter relative to him which I think will be of service, he was realy grown very leasy & of very little use to me, I did intend to complain of him but if this hint I think will have a good effect, he would not be as very bad was it not for his wife by whom he is gouvern’d she is a very bad woman & often disturbs the whole Garison; the Indians hate her mortally.  

It was cruel to let Mrs. Lynch here the story of my amours, I would have given you an account of the whole of them since my arival, but I [was] afraid she would here of them, however this far I will trust as to tell you I have had a Queen, & another very fine Girl.

I have been obliegded at times to give the Indians meat & Drink, but not by three parts so much as Sympson asks for, & this is one great quarrel with him. If Mr’s Kinloch & Moultrie settled in the Provence they will be a great acquisition & I wish you joy of them; I think they will induce many of the Carolinians to follow them. When the East Florida arrives again I hope I shall be able to load her & I hope Mr. Wright will make part of the Cargo, he would be very glad to leave this with me, & I should be sorry to part with him while I stay. I wish with all my hart it had been any body but this man that come here; all that I could say could not persuade him to bring up his Vessel, although his mate always said he could, & he himself has since confessed it, as it has been a disadvantage to Mr. Camerins. I hope he will worck him for it.

I thought for a long time that this Vessel had been cast away & was almost confirmed in my opinion when I was told by an Indian that he had seen a dead body on the beach. On this intelligence Mr. Wright went in a small Canoe to reconoitre the coast, but the weather was so bad that he was obliged to return without discovering anything. In a few days after he went in a larger [Vessel], & on an Island about thirty or forty miles from here, & fix’d start from the shore he found a French man & a woman in the most miserable situation they had been there two months & Eight days, were left by an Indian who had promised to send them to St. Marks, but robed them of all they seaved from the shipwreck; They were obliged to kill a Negro for their subsistence, the story of which is shocking, his tying his hands his handkerchief over his eyes, his sharping his knife & then cutting his throat is terrible. A few scraps of this wretch was their provision when Mr. Wright up. On another Island a few miles distant they found a french Lad (about sixteen years of age, son to the woman) so reduced that he could scircely speak, & was obliged to be carried on board of the boat, he could not have lived twelve hours. The man sailed by this opertunity to St. Augustine, the woman & her son who are not in a condition to go on board chuse to stay in hopes of getting a passage to Pensacola from thence to Lusiana where they were bound from St. Dominga. This poor Man who I believe is a gentleman and is now realy an object of compation, I have given a certificate at his request, have directed him to wait on you with it on his arrival. I hope there will be some method found of sending him to some french Colony, I think there might be a subscription for him, for the particulars of his story I refer you to himself. This brute of a Captain would not take him on board untill I laid in his provisions notwithstanding he depends on me for provision to carry him to St. Augustine he having sold all that was to support himself & crew & passengers. We have the greatest reason to think that the dead body found on the Beach was the womans husband -- Captain of the Vessel; They were sixteen in number & these there are all that are saved.

The Indians seem all contented & well disposed notwithstanding I have continualy bad talks from the Traders but these you know are a parsel of Rascals not to be depended on, & was I to pay the least attention to what they say I should be for ever sending off expresses. That you may be a judge I inclose you the last letter I had from Burges. I hope when you honour me with another letter you will let me know whither or not I am to get the five shillings pr. Day or if I am to expect any thing. I wish you all the happiness you can hope for & a great deal of company at St. Augustine.

P.S. I forgot to tell your Excellency that I have now got rum & I hope in a little time to be able to send you a horse or two.

James Spalding to James Grant, St John’s River, 17 June 1766. JGP: R10; F247-248.

These three months past since the Indians began to Bring in their Spring hunts Mr. Sellers the Trader at Latchowa has kept his Pack Horses on the Indian hunting grounds far to the southward of Latchowa and by this means they are but few whose hunts he did not Buy. I soon foresee that game would make my share of the Spring Trade very Small and therefore bought what horses came in my way in order to be with him, but as few Indians has been with me I was not able to make up a Small gang of horses Sooner than about three weeks ago. They then set out to go as far as my licence would permitt me that is to the head of Acclawaha [Ocklawaha] River a Branch of St. John’s, but in their way about 12 miles from Latchowa they were beset by A Number of Indians who came from there with their Spirits well raised with liquor, they took my goods, tore open the packs and had proposed making a division when the Puttala King came and ordered them to return the goods. Some obeyed him and some others he was obliged to force; however the whole was gote except a few Shirts & some other trifles, He then ordered my horses to return or that he himself next day would take the goods, He said it was Agreed between Your Excellency & them at the Congress, that no Trader should be in their Hunting grounds, and said that besides John Sellers who they loved fuller than any white Man none should be there. I believe the Indians were set on and that all they did was agreed on at Latchowa before they set out, for that reason as soon as my horses recruits they shall go again, and as I shall be with them myself I will [loan?] my goods or sell them before I return. I am indulged with a very extensive licence from Your Excellence and shall go no farther than that permits me, and hopes that licence will protect me more surely than those who extend their licence at their pleasure but as this may only be a prelude to what may farther happen, I thought it expedient to Acquaint Your Excellency of it, together with my Intention and Reason for going. – The Success of any of my Bror Traders or the less Successfulness of my own Trade gives me no Manner of Uneasyness because an Other time may put that to rights; but the Indians turning my horses back and Using my Servants ill gives me reall Concern, because I neither know when nor how it is to end; nor when to get redress. As my designs are far from Intentionally offending Your Excellency Permitt me to Beg an Excuse for this Intrusion.

James Grant to Thomas Gage, St. Augustine, 4 November 1766. JGP R1; F305.

A Vessel sails tomorrow for New York, and I take the Opportunity of acknowledging the honor I had in receiving your Excellency's Letter of April 26 some time ago.

I should trouble you more frequently if any thing happened in this part of the World worth your Notice, the extensive Fund for Correspondence which they have in West Florida, fortunately does not exist in this Place, where it is as much the Fashion to agree, as it seems to be otherwise in that unhappy Country, where by all Accounts, People do not even speak to one another. I had a Letter from Col. Taylor lately, who is much tired with his present Situation and wishes much to be at home again, as Mrs. Taylor and he call this Town.

Our Neighbours the Indians behave vastly well to every Body in this Province, I have got an Assortment of Presents for them from England, and I intend to have another meeting with them at Picolata in the Spring, when they will be agreeably surprised to receive large Presents without any thing being asked from them in Return. I thought such a Step was Necessary to keep up a good Understanding with them in this new Country, I mentioned it to the Lords of Trade and they readily agreed to the Measure.

I take the Liberty to send you a Barrel of Sweet Oranges, which were carefully pick't yesterday in my Garden and I flatter my self they will not spoil during the Passage. I have the honor to be,

James Grant to John Simpson, St Augustine, 11 November 1766. JGP R2; F10.

Some days ago I had the Pleasure to receive your Letter of October 19 by Moody who returns this Day, having received a Gun some Ammunition Paint and Money for his trouble, which shall always be observed with regard to such Expresses as you shall find expedient to send to me.

The East Florida sailed from hence some Weeks ago she is to bring an Assortment of Presents from Charlestown, which will be given to the Indians at a Congress, which I intend to invite them to next Spring, you may inform such of them as come to your Fort that they will receive such an Invitation from me, tho’ I have nothing to ask from them & that the Meeting will convince them of the Great King’s Love and Affection to his red Children.

I am sorry to hear that the Indians have done anything improper in West Florida, in this Province their Behavior is kind, friendly and obliging & very much to my Satisfaction, there is no Reason for suffering with them & no alteration is intended in the Article of Trade with them, the Traders must and will Supply them with Powder and Ball as usuall and as the Indians are quiet in your Neighbourhood, a change of Conduct on the part of the Garrison would be attended with great Inconvenience to the Troops with bad Consequences to the Publick, and could answer no good End. I realy do not know what Reason Col. Taylor had to send you an Order not to supply the Indians with Powder and Ball, that Order does not extend either to Traders or Interpreters & as we never have differed in Opinion when together I am sure when we meet I shall be able to convince him, that you will do right to act as you always have done with regard to Indians for any Innovation with them is Sufficient Cause of (quarrel?) and stopping Powder and Ball would be considered as a Declaration of War which of all things is to be avoided in the present Situation of this Infant Colony.

I am glad to hear your Men recover, we have been Sickly in this Place and Fevers have been frequent this Autumn all over America, particularly in Carolina & Georgia where the Mortality has been considerable.

The East Florida will be sent immediately after she returns from Charles Town with a Supply of Provisions to St. Marks, where I wish you to pass the Winder as agreeably as can be expected tho’ I think there is a Chance of your being relieved from West Florida.

P.S. I send the enclosed Letter to Simpson open that you may read it before it is delivered To Ensign Wright or Officer Commanding at St. Marks.

James Grant to Mr. John Simpson, Indian Trader and Interpreter at St. Marks.

By a letter which I have received from Mr. Wright, the present Commanding Officer at St. Marks, I find it is suspected that the Indians killed two white men in West Florida and that Col. Taylor, to show his sentiment has wrote to the Commanding Officer at St. Marks not to supply them in future with Powder or Ball. The Colonel’s order is not to be observed, for as the Indians are quiet in your neighborhood and kind, friendly and obliging all over the Province you are to continue to supply them as formerly and are to make no alteration in the nature of trade with them unless you receive an order to that purpose from me.

John Simpson to James Grant, Apalachee, 26 November 1766. JGP R11; F226-228.

[T]he Indians are Verry quiate here And in good friendship with us thair Came a felow here belonging to the Tuckawbachees in the Upper Creeks I ask’t Wither  the Chacktaws had made peace with them he told me noe but that they ware at hott War.

Mr. Mcgilvery told me the Chickawsaws Was all moved from the Upper Creeks and from New Savnah to thair own Nation and join the Chacktaws in War Against the Upper Creeks I doe not hear the Lower Creeks intending intermedle with them but Lay quiate.

The Alabamas has quited thair town and gone Down to Dauphin Island for fear of the Chacktaws the Lower Creeks about us is going out a hunting as usal I hear no more at pressant to Acquaint your Excellence. . . .  

[P.S.] May it pleas you Excellency. the front of my bunk house is all beat Down by the Storme and I have Lost and it ruined almost Everry thing I have in the World.

James Grant to John Stuart, St Augustine, 15 Dec 1766. JGP R2; F17-19.

A few days ago, I had the pleasure to receive your Letter of November 15 with the Enclosures referred to, before you can receive my Answer, it is probable that Roderick McIntosh will be set out with your Talk to the Head Men of the Upper Creek Nation, in consequence of the late Murder of Goodwin and Davies, committed by one of their Parties which had been set out against the Choctaws, but as you desired, I shall make a few remarks upon the present State of the Creek Nation, tho’ in fact I have very little to add to my Letter of August 21 last to you upon that Subject.

It appears from Charles Stuarts Letter, that when Susman the Interpreter and Lang the Trader carried the Account of the Murder to Pensacola they informed him at the same time that the Indian Party had endeavoured to disfigure the Scalps, so as to make them pass for Indian ones, in order to conceal their Guilt & to deceive their own Nation, the Young Men looking upon the Murder as a Crime, is sufficient proof that it is not the Intention of the Creeks to differ with the King’s Subjects, but that proof is strengthened by the Disposition of the Head Men to apprehend and give up the Guilty Indians Dead or Alive, and by the Report of Susman and Lang that the whole Nation was uneasy at what had happened, and afraid of our Resentment, and if your late Intelligence from Augusta is true that the Creeks had killed one fellow and were in pursuit of Another, who they are determined likewise to kill, surely we cannot ask or expect greater Satisfaction for the Murder of Goodwin and Davies, and it would be impolitick in us to examine too minutely into former Disputes and Differences.

The Dignity of a powerfull Nation is by no means concerned in Indian Transactions, the Interest not the Honor of Great Britain & its Colonies is to be considered upon such Occassions, the French had great Influence over the Indians from the Education of the Canadian Officers we must allow that they were likely to understand the Management of them, their Family Connections with the Indians gave them Weight, and as they Spoke their Language as fluently as their own, we may suppose that they execute the Orders they received from their Voyageurs being frequently Murdered by the Indians, the French as often demanded satisfaction, if the Opportunity was favorable they insisted upon it, if not they postponed their Resentment, but they very seldom carried that Resentment so high as to commence Hostilities with a whole Nation because a few Individuals deserved Punishment, which by the way no man in the Nation has a Power to Inflict as they have no coercive Power amongst them, only a sort of Club Law, or general Agreement that it is right, that such a fellow should Die; and the French by waiting with Patience, ‘till the Indians were in good Humor with them, or ‘till the offending Nation found it their Interest, to pay Court to them, often obtained Satisfaction; two or three Guilty Indians were at times but very seldom sent to Montreal to be put to Death, I knew of three, one of them was execute, the other two were pardoned, and sent back, to their Nation by Monsieur de Vaudreuil, but the French were too Politick to lose the Trade of an Indian Nation, or to expose their Settlements to Indian Attacks, in order to revenge the Death of a few wandering Woodsmen, Accidents of that kind are not more extraordinary than Robberys  upon the high Way, and can as little be prevented, therefore we should not be alarmed when they happen, and we should expect them to happen at times.

It was no doubt good Policy formerly to engage one Indian Nation to go to War with another, the more they were weakened the better for us, because knowing their Interest, they were disposed to favor the French as the least powerfull Nation; but since the Conquest of Canada and the Floridas, Britain has no contending Power upon this Continent, and of Course our Indian System must be very different, it is so much so in my opinion, that I regret the Loss of every Indian, as I think with Temper and proper care they may soon be made very usefull Subjects to Great Britain, indeed they are so already in many Respects. In this late affair of the Murder we should not look upon the Lower Creeks as being Concerned, they take very little if any part in the Chactaw War, they are gone out to Hunt as usual, they behave remarkably well to every body they meet in the Woods, they carry Plenty of Provisions to the Garrison of St. Marks, and both Mr. Wright the Commanding Officer there and Simpson the Interpreter write me that the Indians are quiet, Friendly, and obliging, their Letters are Dated the 27th of November – it will therefore be very prudent to make a Distinction in our Treatment of the Upper and Lower Creeks – and Presents to the Lower Creeks at this time may be a means of securing their Affections, at any rate I am determined to keep well with them if Possible and shall call them together to receive Presents at Picolata in April or May next, I mentioned February or March but shall postpone it, in hopes that you will be recovered and able to come here, before I send a Talk to invite them – but they are already informed that they are to be invited. The Indians can with great ease stop the Settlement of this Province, and make the Inhabitants of this Town very uneasy, and as we can do no harm to those same Indians, if I can prevent it, there shall be no Scalping betwixt the Appalachicola River and St. Mary’s, As to the consequences of a Creek War with regard to the other Provinces, I am convinced that South Carolina would hardly be able to protect its Frontiers, nay a part of that Frontier would certainly be laid waste, so far is that Province from being in a Situation to assist or contribute in carrying on an Offensive War.

If Georgia is not protected by the Kings Troops many of the Plantations must be abandoned, for they are not able to defend themselves, and I need not tell you that the Floridas would cease to have an existence. On the contrary if we live in Peace with our Neighours this Province will soon ‘tis to be hoped, become a usefull Country, many Plans are formed for its Cultivation, and ‘tis to be hoped will succeed. £60,000 Sterling will probably be laid out next Year by the English Grantees, upon hearing Doctor Turnbulls Report. My Opinion you may see is very strongly for Pacifick Measures, I have made three Indian Campaigns, and know the Difficulties attending them, but if a War should be determined upon the whole Expence in the end will fall upon Great Britain, it did so in the Cherokee War, for the Money laid out by Carolina did not save the Crown a Shilling. The case would be more so if possible in a Creek War, for that Province would not be so deeply concerned. As to our Allies, the Chactaws, Chickasaws, Cherokees and Catawbas, they must be greater Fools that I take them for if they would concur heartily to extirpate the Creeks, and if they did, it would be the work of many Tears, during which time the Southern Provinces would be cut up. If our Allies give us their assistance we must feed them, for joined with small parties of Provincials & Regulars they will do nothing of consequence, a War carried on in that way must be tedious & would be destructive to us, much more than to the Indians. At Arms length they will always have the Advantage, we must get near them to hurt them, that must be done with a numerous body of Troops & at great Expence, one Campaign would cost more Money, than would keep the Indians in humor for twenty Years if properly laid out in Presents. Compliments to Mrs. Stuart I send her a Barrel of Sweet Oranges – I wish you better Health, and am with great Truth, Dear John...

James Grant to Colonel Taylor, St Augustine, 4 January 1767. JGP R2; F21.

I am sorry for the loss you sustained in the Hurrican, Captn Bachop carries you a Supply of Goods, which may be a means of making it up.

You’l inform the Indians, I mean the lower Creeks only, that I have got Presents from the Great King which I intend to invite them to receive as formerly at Picolata, and you may assure them that I have nothing to ask from them in return. I do not desire you to go into the Nation, telling the People who come to the Fort is sufficient, I send an Invitation and fix upon the time, which I think will probably be in May.

You Promised at the last Congress to buy two good Horses for me, but You have Neglected it. Horses are easily got at Pensacola and Mobille, and I cannot conceive why they may not be purchased in the same Way at St. Marks, endeavor to make up for the Omission and send me two good strong Horses, the first time Moody comes to this Place. I shall readily pay whatever they cost by sending you the Things you give the Indians.

Excerpt of James Grant to the Earl of Shelburne, St. Augustine, 17 January 1767. JGP R1; F312.

My Lord,  Ensign Wright the Commanding Officer at St. Marks Appalaché informed me some time ago by Express that the Fort had been much Damaged in a Hurricane the 23rd of October, the Water rose twelve feet higher than it do's in Spring Tides; and he with some difficulty saved the Ammunition and the greatest part of the Provisions.

I sent the East Florida Schooner with a supply of Provisions to the Garrison, and I ordered the Commanding Officer of His Majesty's Troops to send Mr. Moncrief an Engineer with two Ordnance Artificers, to assist in putting the Fort in Repair.

As the Fort is situated in the Center of an Indian Nation, this Service did not admit of delay, or I should have left the direction of it, to the Commander in Chief of His Majesty's Troops [Gage], or to the Brigadier of the District [Haldimand]; the Expence attending it do's not seem to me to fall under the Article of Contingent Expences of the Province, and therefore I shall pay Mr. Moncrief his Charge by Warrant upon the Money Contractors for the Troops -- and shall at the same time transmit his Account, to the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury.

This Place is situated nearly in an Island, there is but one Outlet, the Pasture for Cattle very indifferent, and at a Distance, which is a great Inconvenience to the Inhabitants -- on the opposite side of St. Sebastian's Creek -- there are large Savanahs -- very find Pasture -- and number of Plantations -- A Communication over that Creek will be of infinite Utility to the Town, and of great advantage to every body who settles to the Southward -- which seems at present to be the favorite Object.

I have therefore to give Mr. Moncrief when he returns from St. Marks three hundred Pounds, for building a Bridge and making a Road over the Marsh of St. Sebastian's Creek -- I send Your Lordship a sketch of the Work proposed, with the Estimate, Mr. Moncrief give Security to execute the Plan in one Year, and to keep the Bridge and Road in good order for two Years after the Work is compleated, but he insists on receiving the Money in advance, to enable him to purchase Negores, to assist in carrying on the Work, for without that he declares he cannot undertake it -- the American Gentleman who I have consulted assures me that Mr. Moncrief's demand is reasonable, they say the Bridge may stand fifty Years -- that the Materials would amount to the Money -- if they were bought at the usual price payed for Lumber here -- Indeed no body could execute the Work so well or so cheap as Mr. Moncrief, because he will oversee, and direct cutting the Timbers, as well as the Construction of the Bridge, and will only have a few Carpenters to Pay...

John Simpson to James Grant, Apalachee, 3 February 1767. JGP R13; F88-89.

I was honored with your favour and am Sorry I have Delayed soe long about Getting horses it was not my fault but for not having Keggs Detard me Capt [B]achop Gave me four Keggs I have bought one good strong young horse and am going into the nation with Mr. Moncriff [Moncrief] and will Doe all in my power Lays to Gitt a Match to him.

Some Indian that has been here tell me that the Spaniards have had a Talk Last summer with a fellow Called [T]hlawhulgu and Sent a Talk to all the head men of the Lower Creeks and that [T]hlawhulgu has gott the Young Lieutt [Escuchapé/Escochabe] of the Cowatus’ [Cowetas’] Commission with a friend talk from him and most of the head men thay had the Spanish Talk at their busk in Every Square if this [T]hlawhuglgu sees the Spaniards at the time appointed for them to meet was to be in this Last January he is to goe over to the [H]avanha and his Sons to Return with the answer to the Young Lieutenant of the Cowatus nothing if more Certain than the Spaniard has sent Talks into their Nation It Leve Your Excellency to Judge of the Matter all is Verry Quiate at present.

John Stuart to James Grant, Charles Town, 3 April 1767. JGP: R13; F210-212.

This will be delivered by Mr. Sinnot who I have Appointed to reside as Assistant Commissary at Saint Marks Appalache. He will communicate to your Excellency his Instructions, and Warrant, and after receiving Your Commands will proceed round in the Same Vessel, in which I have shipped some presents and provisions to be applyed as pointed out in his Instructions. I begg your Excellency will be pleased to give the necessary orders to the Officer Commanding at Appalache concerning Mr. Sinnot that there may be no misunderstanding or clashing between them. I have advised Mr. Sinnot to get a lodging built without the Fort, and with the concurrence of the Officer to pitch upon a piece of Ground for that purpose, and I think if all the Traders to the Towns mentioned in his Warrant, were to be obliged to reside near the fort, and places to build as pointed out, as is practiced in the Northern District it would be attended with good consequences and render it easier to govern them: but this I submit to your Excellency.

I have now the Honour of Inclosing to your Excellency a printed copy of Regulations which I send to the Commissaries residing in the different Nations, with Orders to require of the Traders in their Respective districts Strict complyance with and Observation of them: In framing them I have been principally directed by the Plan for the future management of Indians drawn up by the Right honble Board of Trade an Abstract from which I also send inclosed and I begg leave to request that you will be pleased to conform thereto in granting Licences in future, as I shall regulate my conduct by said Plan ‘till Other Measures shall be pointed out by Government.

It became incumbent upon me to lay all the Traders holding Licences from the different Governors to Trade in the Indian Nations within this District, under one uniform set of Regulations, to the Observation of which they will be bound by their Bonds and Sureties, provided their Licences are Granted according to the Royal Proclamation of 7 October 1763.

As the Creeks complained of the high prices of goods, at the Congresses held at Pensacola and Picolata, which they have since given as one of the Causes of their dissatisfaction it became my duty to take some steps to give them Satisfaction in this Matter. I have Appointed the Twentyeth current for meeting the principal Traders to that Nation at Augusta where I have invited Some leading Creeks, properly Authorised to Appear for their Nation and settle the prices of goods with the Traders, Natural Justice requiring that they be settled by the parties, and when a Tariff is once agreed upon I shall communicate the same to the Different Governors, that they may bind the Traders to Observe it. I have pitched upon Augusta as most Central & the place of Residence of the Principal Traders. I have directed Mr. Roderick Mackintosh to Contribute all in his power in sending the Indians to meet your Excellency at Picolata and to Order Forrester to Attend them should your Excellency signify your Intentions of meeting them as you proposed.

I find it also necessary to meet the Cherokees and settle Matters between them and their Traders, as also to send their Deputies to meet the North Carolina Commissioners in order to run out the Boundary Line behind that Province.

General Gage concurrs in Opinion that we might endeavour to obtain Place for the Cherokees from their Northern Enemies, and I propose sending their Deputies by water to N. York. I shall bring them to Town with me from Long Canes. [T]hat Nation has lost 350 persons by war within these last twelve months. [L]ast night I received Letters from Mr. Cameron and the head men and I have the Satisfaction to Learn that the Report of Virginians being Murdered near Cowie [Keowee] proves groundless.

I have not had any late Accounts from the Creek Nation and the last packet from Pensacola did not bring me one Letter.

Thomas Gage to James Grant, New York, 30 April 1767. JGP: R13; F291-293.

Captain Jenkins of the 9th Regiment has acquainted me of the Danger that has threatened the little Port of Appalachi and of the Damage it has sustained by the extraordinary Rise of the waters. I hope every thing has been done for its immediate Security in the Manner you have directed, and I have wrote to Brigdier General Haldimand concerning the State of the Barracks, and other Repairs that may be wanted. Upon all the Enquirys I have made concerning the use or Importance of that Post, the Reports made me are, that no Traders resort thither, [nor are] there any Accounts of settlers going there. You will be the best and properest Judge of these Matters, and I would therefore beg the favor of you to acquaint me of what use you conceive that Place at present to be or whether you think it worth the Expence of Maintaining, the present Plan is to [adhered to] as much as possible.

We hear frequently of parties of settlers embarking for your Government, but no Accounts that your Neighbours have any Prospect of Increase. . . .

By His Excellency James Grant Esqr Captain General & Governor & Commander in Chief in and over His Majesty’s said Province.

You are hereby required and Directed to pay to James Moncrief Esq. Engineer thirty seven Pounds twelve Shillings & six pence sterling without Deduction, being the amount of the Expence for repairing the Ford of St. Marks Appalache, Damaged in a Hurricane October 23, 1766, for which this Warrant in the annexed Account & the Engineers Receipt shall be to you sufficient vouchers.

Given under my Hand at St Augustine the 27th of May 1767

James Grant to Thomas Gage, St. Augustine, 30 June 1767. JGP: R1; F328-329.

Your Letter of April 30, I had the Honor to receive a few days ago by Captain Philips of the Royal Americans, who arrived here on his way to Pensacola, to sit upon a General Court Martial, a disagreeable Business which likewise carries Captains Jenkins & Sutherland from this place, 'tis to be hoped those Gentlemen to the Westward will in future contrive to agree together, and allow our East Floridian Officers to live in Peace & Quiet at Home. I am almost afraid of an Infection from the Pensacola Air.  

Mr. Moncrief the Engineer made such Repairs as he found necessary for the immediate Security of the Garrison at St. Marks, the whole expence amounted only to £37.12.6 which I had by Warrant upon the Money Contractors & I transmitted the Account to the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury; as the work was done by my direction upon an Emergency I did not think it right to trouble you about the Payment of the Account.

In consequence of your Orders Brigadier General Haldimand has sent Mr. Pitman to examine into the State of the Barracks, and of such other Repairs as may be wanted: The Barracks will be found to be the most pressing Article.

The Expence attending the Fort at St. Marks is not considerable as the Supplies for the Garrison are sent by Water on Board the Provincial Schooner. It is of great use in keeping up a Friendly Intercourse with the Indians, in case of Accidents it is a safe Retreat for Traders, & from its Situation, I flatter myself in time . . . [it will] draw a great part of the Trade of the Lower Creeks to that place. Besides the demand for Land is so great in this Province by the Grantees or their Agents from England that some of the Settlements must soon extend towards Appalache. The Entrance into the Harbor or Bay is discouraging otherwise I should not despair of seeing a Town rise there in a few Years, but at any rate it will always be a Port of Importance to this Province in time of Peace or War. If we should unfortunately have a difference with Indians, which I shall take every step in my power to prevent, St. Marks would be a proper place to form an Attack from, & we shall now be able to keep up a Correspondence with West Florida by means of that Post. Brigadier Haldimand desires to know my Opinion upon it, & I have told him there is nothing more easy by a Boat's going to & from Pensacola to St. Marks, & by expresses to & from this place to St. Marks, the Expence will be trifling to keep up an Intercourse of once a Month. I have proposed to the Brigdr to pay for the Boat, and I have offered to pay the Expesses of this side. I think such an arrangement will be of great use to the King's Service in these Infant Colonies.

As I have said so much about the Fort of St. Marks, I must take the Liberty to mention to you that Lieut. Sweetenham's Conduct during the time he Commanded was very satisfactory & since he was called away Ensign Wright has acted with great Prudence & Propriety, during all the Disturbances to the Westward I have not had a Complaint of or from the Indians, the two Gentlemen I have mentioned have great Merit from their Management of them, they are both loved & respected by the Indians. I have applyed to Brigr Haldimand to continue Ensign Wright in that Command if the Service will admit of it. I mentioned before I left England that an Allowance would be made to Officers Commanding at Distant Posts, if such a Regulation has taken place, it would be very obliging, if your Excellency was pleased to put St. Marks upon that footing, in which case I beg leave to recommend Lieut. Sweetenham & Ensign Wright as being both very deserving of that Bounty.

James Grant to Ensign Wright, St. Augustine, 21 July 1767. JGP: R2; F55-56.

I am favored with your Letter of July 1 by Moody who seems to be apprehensive that he has incurred your Displeasure, if it is so I dare say it is very deservedly, but as he is usefull, be so good as to overlook some Faults. I do not know what they are, & he does not know that I have mentioned his name to you.

I am much obliged to you for the Trouble you have taken in getting me Horses, the last two will I believe answer very well for my Carriage, but as our Roads are heavy I should be glad to have another two to match the last two as nearly as possible, if they can be got. Moody will bring them to this place, when they are sent mention the Price that I may send the amount with the Kegs, Rum & Blanketts mentioned in Simpson's account for the other Horses.

I send under Cover to Mr. Sennot a Talk to the head Men of the Lower Creek Nation to Meet me at Picolata about the end of October, with directions to Forrester to go round the Towns to invite them & to attend them from the Nation to the Congress to serve as an Interpreter. I have desired Mr. Sennot to send those papers by Simpson, with orders to Simpson to go round the Towns with Forrester & assist him. You'l be so good as to send Moody at the same time with Simpson, to hear my Talks explained by Simpson, to Forrester who cannot read. Moody [is] to go round the Towns with them, & when he returns to St. Marks from that Expedition, you'l be so good as to send him express to me. Mr. Sennot & you will then inform me what has been fixed with the Indians, how they received my Talk, which you'l see is a very friendly one and when I may expect them at Picolata. I have desired Mr. Sennot to send Simpson with the Indians to Picolata, to attend & assist during the Congress and I send Mr. Sennot printed Regulations for Trade, which are different from those he carried with him, the Superintendant found it expedient to alter them in some Articles.

I send you enclosed a Letter for Brigadier Haldimand to be forwarded by the Pensacola Boat. You will probably in future hear more frequently from thence & from this place than formerly, the Brigadier will contrive to forward Letters to & from St. Marks to Pensacola & I agree to pay the Expresses to & from this place to St. Marks. We intend to establish the Post about once a Month but when nothing material happens you will postpone sending the Express until you have some Intelligence to communicate -- for Example when the express Boat returns from Pensacola. Unless Brigadier Haldimand desires you to forward his Letters directly you'l be so good as to keep them 'till Moody returns with Simpson from the Nation, and when you send Moody to inform me what has been fixed with the Indians by Forrester he can at the same time bring the Pensacola Letter with him, but if the Brigadier desires you to forward his Letters directly -- you'l be so good as to send Cook with them to this place -- for I have settled with Colonel Taylor that Moody is to be employed as I have mentioned a precaution which I thought necessary to take, to prevent your receiving contrary directions about Expresses from the Colonel and me.

When Moody & Simpson go round the Towns it will be a good opportunity to look out for the other two Carriage Horses.

I have wrote to Brigr Haldimand that I wish you to be continued in the Command at St. Marks, and I have asked the Favor of him if it is in his Power to put you upon the same Footing with the Officers to the Northward, who Command at Out Posts -- they, you may have heard have an allowance.

I flatter myself that Mr. Sennot & you will act in Concert together, by that means you will keep every thing near you in Peace & Quiet.

I should be obliged to you, if you would order Simpson to get me some Bear's Oil -- to be sent here by the Vessel, which carries Provisions to the Garrison in Winter.

James Grant to Pierce Sinnott, St Augustine, 21 Jul 1767. JGP: R2; F54-55.

I send you enclosed a Talk to the Head Men & Warriors of the Lower Creek Nation, with Instructions to Forrester the Interpreter, and a List of the Chiefs I wish to have invited. You’l be so good as to send Simpson to the Nation to deliver & explain those Papers to Forrester who cannot read, therefore it will be necessary that Simpson should go round the Towns with Forrester and I have desired Mr. Wright to send Moody with Simpson to meet & assist Forrester. After every thing is fixed with the Indians Mr. Wright will send Moody express to me to inform me what has been done, & when I may expect the Indians at Picolata. Forrester has already been informed by the Superintendant that I was to call the Indians together and was ordered by him to attend them to Picolata. I shall pay him handsomely for his Trouble. When the Indians set out for Picolata, you’l be so good as to send Simpson likewise with them, for there is no trusting to one Interpreter, whenever Captain Stuart or I do business with the Indians, we chuse to have a number of Interpreters present to prevent mistakes if possible.

I have heard lately from Captain Stuart, he has made some alterations in the Printed Regulations for Indian Affairs, of which I send you a Copy according to which you may with safety Regulate your Conduct, in case you have not received Orders from him to that effect. I like them much better than the first which you delivered to me. I shall establish a Post or Express to be sent once a Month from St. Marks – when any thing material happens in your Neighbourhood – Brig. Haldimand will do the same by means of a Boat from Pensacola, so that the Intercourse between the two Governments will be open & frequent. You may forward your Letters to the Super Intendant to me, and I shall be glad to have particular Information from you by every opportunity of what is doing in your Department, and what you hear passes in the other parts of the District.

James Grant to the Lower Creeks, St Augustine, 21 July 1767. JGP: R2; F56-57.

By His Excellency James Grant Esqr Captain General, Governor & Commander in Chief in & over the said Province, & Vice Admiral of the same

A Talk To the Head Men and Warriors of the Lower Creek Nation:

Friends & Brothers: since we met last at Picolata I have from time to time informed the Great King of the behavior of his Red Children, like a good Father he thinks of you at a Distance on the other side of the Great Lake, & it makes his Heart glad to hear that the white & Red People live together in Peace and Friendship as Brothers should do. Your People have been kind to the Warriors at the Fort, and to all the White People who have settled upon that part of the Country which you gave up at the last Congress to your White Brothers.

The Great King your Father has ordered me to call you together and meet up at Picolata two Moons after the Green Corn Dance, about the End of October, to take you by the Hand & smoke with you – to thank you for your good behavior, to give you Presents and Provisions as a proof of the Continuance of His Father by affection to his Red Children for he wants nothing from you. The Kings Orders to me are to be kind to his Red Children, to hear any thing they have to say, to give them Friendly Talks, and to take nothing from them.

Instructions for Forrester the Indian Interpreter:
Mr. Sennot Deputy Commissary for Indian Affairs at St. Marks will send you my Talk to the Indians by Simpson.

You will go round the several Towns of the lower Creek Nation & deliver my Talk to the Head Men, & invite them to meet me at Picolata the end of October, as the great Heats will then be over. You are to Conduct them yourself to the Fort, & are to act as Interpreter at the Congress.

I send you a List of the Head Men who I wish to meet me, if I have omitted any Names, you may add them.

Tho’ I am desirous to have a number of the Head Men, I do not wish the Congress to be very numerous. If you can contrive to make up about a hundred fifty, it would be sufficient, but I know it is not in your power to fix the number exactly, I only wish you to do as you can.

Moody will go up to the Nation with Simpson, they will go round with you & assist you, and Moody is to come Express to me to inform me, what you settle with the Indians.

When you set out from the Nation for Picolata, you’l send me notice about what time I may expect the Indians at the Fort, that every thing may be ready for their Reception.

Be attentive to execute this Business properly & you shall be rewarded and Payed to your Satisfaction.

List of Head Men of the Lower Creek Nation who Forrester is desired particularly to invite to the Congress at Picolata.

Names of Towns

Head Men


White King




Young Twin


Big Warrior


War King


White King


Scotch Man


Captain Aleck




Pumpking King




Sikais Son


Long King


Sharp Noes Son


Head Warrior


Young King






Blend Mans Son








Tomatlé Mico










Mad Warrior





N.B. The People of Mikasoukee & Lachaway you’l make a Visit to, and invite as you come along.

James Grant to Frederick Haldimand, St Augustine, 22 July 1767. JGP: R2; F57-58.

I have had the honor to receive your Letters of June 5 & 12, [and] I with pleasure embrace the first opportunity of congratulating you upon you appointment & safe arrival in the District.

I shall be happy to see you here, when your Business permits you to leave Pensacola, if you only come upon a Visit. If you, my friend Marsh, and your Mayor of Brigade, will do me the favor to eat & Drink with me, you will do me Honor & Pleasure; do not take this for Compliment, upon my Word it will not give me the least Trouble, or put me to a shilling extraordinary expence, do not load yourself with Baggage, and if you'l say about what time you intend to come, a house will be found for your Beds & a few Chairs & more you do not want -- this will answer much better than a Plan which I have heard of, they are good people you can see them as often as you please -- but you'l be easier and better in the way I mention.

Nothing more easy than keeping up an Intercourse & Communication with the two provinces by means of a Boat: you send & receive Letters to & from St. Marks, two Soldiers of the 9th Regiment who are already acquainted with the Country can be employed in carrying Letters to & from this place to St. Marks; you can pay the Boat & hands at Pensacola, & I will pay the Expresses on this side. A Post established once a Month will be sufficient & in case nothing material occurs the Commanding Officer at St. Marks may postpone sending the Express 'till he has Letters from you to forward, or something happens which is worth Communicating.

I have wrote to Mr. Wright that it will not be necessary to send an Express when the Boat returns from Pensacola unless you desire it, that he may delay it 'till he sends me an account at what time the Indians agree to meet me at Picolata. I have invited them to a Congress there to give them Presents & to thank them for their good behavior, for they have always been Civil & obliging to every body in this Province.

Ensign Wright has been above eighteen Months at St. Marks, he is a stranger to me, but he seems to be a prudent sensible young Man, his Conduct at that Post has been very satisfactory, he is acquainted with the Indians & lives upon exceeding good Terms with them if the Service can admit of it, it will be an advantage in Indian Transactions to continue him in the Command will he not be intitled to the Allowance which is given to subaltern Officers Commanding in Out Posts -- to the Northward -- I intended to mention Mr. Wright's case to General Gage, but as I have been looking out for you for some Months past I thought the application would more properly go to you, as it immediately comes under your Department. . . .

James Grant to John Stuart, St Augustine, 27 July 1767. JGP: R2; F59-60.

Your Letters of April 3 & July 2 I have been favored with, and likewise with the Enclosures therein mentioned, Mr. Sennot proceeded on his voyage to St. Marks Appalaché according to your Instructions – by the way I remember your complaining of Mr. Sennot’s Conduct upon the Mississippi and shewing me his Letter as being unintelligible – you said the Fellow was a Fool, but you could not help it, you was pressed in point of time at Pensacola, and could not find a better there. He no doubt has cleared up those points to your satisfaction, but as he is a Stranger and unaccustomed with the Indians at St. Mark’s, I only wish he may do no harm, for those Indians are upon a most friendly footing with the Garrison and all of them have behave remarkably well to the Inhabitants of this Province, since it was Ceded to Great Britain. Ensign Wright who commands there has been upon that Duty above 18 Months, he is a sensible Discreet prudent young Man, has been in most of the Indian Towns, is acquainted with them all and is in high favor with them. I have therefore desired that he may remain in the Command at St. Marks, to keep up the same Friendly Intercourse with their numerous Neighbours. His Majesty’s Secretary of State Signifies to me that the Commander in Chief has received His Majesty’s express Orders to Cooperate with the Civil Government in enforcing His Majesty’s Proclamation of 1763: in Stopping, preventing & Correcting the Traders’ Trespasses & Encroachments complained of & represented by His Majesty’s Super Intendant for Indian Affairs. Those Crimes & Irregularities were chiefly local to Virginia in the Southern District, Georgia & the Floridas could not be included, and the Complaint surely should have been confined to the guilty Provinces. In this Colony there never has been a Dispute or Difference with the Indians no Complaint that I know of has ever been made of them or by them, no Encroachment was ever made upon their Country, they cannot point out a single Settlement beyond the Boundary line of the Province. If any of the Crimes & Irregularities complained of had happened or existed in this Province, I should have taken every measure in my power to remove irregular Settlers, to prevent improper Settlements, and to apprehend offenders whose Crimes no doubt tend to involve His Majesty’s Subjects in an Indian War, and I should have informed you of every step which was taken to give Satisfaction to the injured Indians, but fortunately for this Province those Evils have not spread so far to the Southward. A dispute with Indians would end in the ruin of this Infant Colony. ‘Tis therefore my business to live upon good Terms with them, and while I remain here I shall make it my Study to keep up Peace and Harmony betwixt the Appalachicola River & St. Marys.

With that intention I have sent to invite the Head Men and Warriors of the Lower Creek Nation to meet me at a Congress at Picolata about the end of October. I formerly mentioned September to you, but I have postponed the meeting for a Month, that the heats my be over before I have the honor of taking your Indian Kings & Princes by the Hand.

I have nothing to ask of them, I shall feed them well give them handsome presents, and send them away in good Humor, if they have any Complaints to make, which are Local to the Province I shall hear them and shall take every step in my power to give them immediate redress.

As to the Article of Limits, that matter is sufficiently explained by the Treaty signed at Picolata which shall be read to them. I would rather chuse to leave it open at present, because the number of Orders given by His Majesty in Council for Grants of Land in this Province may make it necessary for me at some future meeting to extend the Boundary Line of the Province, and to explain more particularly the Limits at Appalache, which you may recollect was intentionally left in the general terms of the flowing of the Tyde, but if the Indians should desire the Line to the Westward of St. Johns to be marked out I shall appoint Commissaries for that Purpose & shall inform you of the time they are to meet the Indian Deputies.

I need not tell you that I have received an additional Instruction under His Majesty’s Signet & Sign Manual to correspond in future with His Majesty’s Secretary of State only transmitting duplicates of my Letters to the Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations for their Lordships information, except in cases of a private Nature – by this means all power is taken out of the Hands of the Board of Trade – which is become entirely a Board of Reference in place of being as formerly a Board of Report and Correspondence.

I was glad to hear of you safe Return to Charles Town, ‘tis to be hoped the Expence will prevent a Return of the Gout – the Attacks become too frequent. I wish you Health & Happiness, my best Respects attend Mrs. Stuart. I give you both Joy upon Miss Stuart’s Marriage, in less than a Year she will make you both old People – a Grand Papa – adieu.

James Grant to Frederick Haldimand, St Augustine, 22 February 1768.
JGP: R2; F107-108.

I have had the honor to receive your Letters of the September 12 [and] October 27, no opportunity has offered since that time of conveying a Letter to you, I wish we could contrive to establish the Communication from St. Marks, it might be usefull & would certainly be pleasing to both Provinces, we are thought to be Negators and . . . we should really become so. . . .

James Grant to Ensign Wright, St Augustine, 23 February 1768. JGP: R2; F108-109.

Lieut. Fraser who sets out to day, intended going when Forrester left this place, which prevented my writing by him.

The Indians and I parted upon good Terms. They have promised in the most Solemn Manner to give satisfaction for the Murder committed near St. Marys River. I only wish to have one put to Death to prevent such Accidents in future, as they really met with great Provocation, and of course were not so much to blame for resenting bad Treatment, but the revenge was too violent.

I send Tonapie [Tunape] away in perfect good humor & made him a Capt. you may tell him that he felt the good Effects of his Behavior and your Recommendation.

Mr. Fraser will give you all the News.

Pierce A. Sinnott to James Grant, St Marks, 2 March 1768. JGP: R15; F99-101.

Although I have no news worth sending to your Excellency yet I cannot help doing myself the Honour of writing, as I have heard with the greatest concern that you are offended with me for not sending Simpson according to your Excellency’s desires. I shewed my Obedience in sending him off first, but when I found that there was no hopes of a Congress, which was the Opinion of the Indians and Interpreters as well as mine, I concluded that he would not be wanted and really imagined that you would have approved me for leaving the Garrison or myself destitute of an Interpreter, when affairs Appeared (to us) doubtfull, so much that Forrester seemed apprehensive of returning to the Nation, which he wanted to do untill I desired him to continue on.

There is no Trader in these parts who can speak the Tongue, except Burgess and by all accounts he is a very bad Man. [W]hen the Indians assembled here the beginning of September last, Simpson was gone with Moody to meet Forrester in the Nation. Burgess refused then to Interpret for less than ten pounds Sterling and behaved so Insolent that Mr. Wright was obliged to confine him as he did Interpret afterwards, and I gave him and Mealey of My own provisions & Liquor for thirty Dollars which I never made a Charge of. He cannot at best be depended upon so that had there been ever so great a Necessity for an Interpreter I must have sent two hundred miles for a Trader, who probably would have refused coming. I hope the above reasons will excuse me, & humbly beg leave to Assure your Excellency that I shall always shew the greatest respect to any commands you may please to Honour me With.

I Believe Mr. Wright acquaints Your Excellency of three Spanish Vessels being seen some time ago in a Large Bay near Calousehatchy – supposed to be the Bay of Tampa. One of them called to an Indian Canoe passing along and desired the Indians in the Creek tongue to come on Board and smoke and talk to them for they had something to say, which it seems they did not chuse to do. Some of them had Cannons and each of them had two masts. Ssofry [Slofry?] was kill’d & Buried in the Square of the New Town, about six weeks ago on suspicion of being a Conjurer – a little before that a Brother of his was kill’d, at or near Sowaney on the same account.

The Indians bring in very little Meat, but behave very well when they do come, there are a great number incamped round about us at some miles distance waiting for the Vessel as they expect great things when She Arrives, Particularly Rum.

[T]here is a New Town settling near the Assilly 30 Miles off & the Indians about here have told me that they will build & sit down by me their camp is about 3 Miles off where there are Several familys.

Frederick Haldimand to James Grant, Pensacola, 8 April 1768. JGP: R15; F164.       

The great difficulty & Expence attending Supplying the Garrison of St. Mark of Appalachia with Provisions, (this being the third time that Post has been reduced to want, since we have been in Possession of it;) and the little Consequence it is of at present; has Obliged me to reduce the Garrison to One Sergeant and Nine Men, which I have sent from hence, to Relieve Ensign Wright and his detachment, whom I have Ordered to March to St. Augustine, to Join their Regiment.

George Swettenham to James Grant, Londonderry, 21 May 1768.
JGP: R15; F267-268.

To atempt an apology for not writing to you sooner would in my opinion only highten the crime, I hope you will impute it to my indolence . . . not to want of regard. I heard that you recommended me in a particular manner to General Gage, gave him a good account of my conduct whilst at Apalache, for which I return you my sincere thanks, & I wish for some opportunity to prove myself not unworthy of your [praise]. This is the third or fourth letter that I have begun but from Idleness never could finish one, indeed I staid a good while in London where the pleasure of the Town engrossed all my attention, it is impossible to describe the great transition from America to England, particularly after a tedious passage of eight weeks, & the last fortnight on very short rations, which I believe you will imagine was very disagreeable to me. I was but ten days in that great City until I met with a slight accident, which stoped me for a short time. . . . [much of the remainder is not readable.]
Thomas Gage to James Grant, New York, 25 June 1768, 15.309-310 R15; F311-313.

I have the Honor to Acquaint You, that You will have a large Reinforcement of His Majesty’s Troops at St. Augustine, as Soon as it will be possible to Transport them thither from their present Stations. The Company’s of the 9th Regiment now in Bermuda & New Providence it is probable, will be first with You, & I hope from the Barracks building at the Church of St. Francis, and by the help of the Old Quarters, those Companys may Soon be provided with Lodgements.

Besides the above Two Companys of the Ninth Regiment; Brigadier General Haldimand will Embark from Pensacola for St. Augustine about Fifteen Companys of the 21st & 31st Regiments, who must Encamp ‘till Barracks are provided for them. And as it will be necessary to Build Barracks for that Number as Soon as it can Conveniently be done, I am to beg of You to Assist Us, by allotting a proper Spot of Ground for the purpose.

Amongst other Important Objects, I have lately received His Majesty’s Commands, to Withdraw the Garrisons from all the Forts, as well in the Interior as the Settled parts of the Colonies, not immediately necessary to facilitate Commerce, or for Publick Safety. On this Account, I am to direct Brigadier General Haldimand to Abandon the Fort of St. Marks, and to desire You would inform the Brigadier, concerning the Disposal of said Fort when the Troops shall be withdrawn, whether You would have it entirely Dismantled, or whether You would give to any Settlers who may be going to Settle in those parts or what other use You would convert it to?

The only News I have to tell You is, that Our Neighbors to the Eastward are again in Tumult and Disorder; They have very lately beat, and Abused the Comptroller & Collector of the Customs, broke several Windows, and drove the Commissioners of the Customs, the whole Board, to Castle William, where they took Shelter, and are further protected there, by One of His Majesty’s Ships.

James Grant to Thomas Gage, St. Augustine, 25 August 1768. JGP: R1; F363-364.

I had the honor to receive your Excellency’s letter of June 25 sometime ago, which I have been prevented from answering sooner by a pretty severe attack of an intermitting fever. I was vastly happy to hear of the intended plan of reinforcement for this place. The Bermuda and Providence Companys are already arrived and have been lodged in the manner you point out, in their old quarters, for this I have not a place to hold the Courts in. I give the troops use of the Bishop’s House, till the Barracks at St. Francis Church are finished.

The troops may be encamped upon good ground near the Fort of Mossy. I have shown the place to Major Whitmore and have likewise pointed out to him a convenient spot for building barracks for any number of men you please, when I shall also give them some ground for gardens. Upon my arrival here I took a farm near the Town for my amusement and by that means I luckily have it in my power to accommodate the troops which could not have been otherwise without putting government to expense, everything in and near the town is become private property. Tis to be hoped the Troops are to remain with us, if they do this will soon become a province of some note, for not withstanding the many reports which are spread to the disadvantage of East Florida, the climate in the end will be found to get the better of any inconvenience.

We have no sort of Communication with West Florida at present, Lord Hillsborough has some thoughts of establishing a Post by Land from Charlestown to Pensacola, by the Way of St. Marks, but in the Meantime I am at a Loss how to convey a Letter to Brigadier Haldimand, but I flatter myself he will not dismantle the Fort of St. Marks 'till I have the Pleasure of seeing him, I have spoke to Mr. Gordon about establishing a Trading House there, in order to keep that Fort in some sort of Repair, it cost the Spaniards a great deal of Money and would be of great Utility, if we should ever have any Dispute, with our numerous Creek Neighbours, and when that Part of the Country comes to be inhabited, the Fort would be a Protection to Settlers, against assaults, Privateers, and the Spanish Banditti from Cuba, in Case Great Britain should have a difference with the Court of Spain, I do not mean that Government should be at any Expence to keep the Fort in Order, but I think it rather advisable not to demolish it, and in case this Province gets on, if it should be thought expedient to send a small Garrison there, it must be a Provincial Expence.

. . .

Frederick Haldimand to James Grant, Pensacola, 27 August 1768. JGP: R16; F86-88.

Having received His Excellency the Commander in Chief’s Orders to Embark for St. Augustine with fifteen Companies: I take the Earliest Opportunity to acquaint Your Excellency of this Augmentation of the Troops in Your Province, where they will encamp ‘till Barracks can be provided for them.

The General having wrote to you in regard to the fort of St. Mark of Appallachia; I beg you will be pleas’d to lett me know by the return of this Opportunity Your Views upon it; There being no trade Carrying on at that Post, and a Communication between this and St. Augustin too difficult, and of So little Use at present, that Garrison becomes intirely Useless.

I hope for the pleasure of paying My respects to You, as Soon as the Garrisons of the Natches, and Iberville, have past New Orlean; An Express went off from here then [ten] days ago with Order to Abandon those Posts, but I can Scarcely expect their arrival here before Six Weeks.

James Grant to Earl of Hillsborough, St Augustine, 28 September 1768.
JGP: R1; F371.

Major General Gage acquaints me in a letter of the 25th of June that the Fort of St. Marks Appalache is to be abandoned, & he desired to know if I chuse to have that Fort destroyed when the Troops are withdrawn.

St. Marks would be a Post of great Importance & Utility in the event either of a Spanish or Indian War, it is of course expedient to keep the Fort entire as that can be done without Expence, by putting a Credible Trader in possession of it, who upon his own Account will at least keep the houses in some sort of Repair. I have mentioned those Circumstances to the General, and as I have got a Trader who agrees to send Stores to St. Marks and to reside there, I have desired that the Fort may not be Dismantled.

. . .

James Wright to James Grant, Savanna, 20 October 1768. JGP: R16; F198-199.

[A] few days ago I received a letter from the Creek Country Which is as follows. “The Coweta Lieutenant [The Young Lieutenant / Escuchape] does not Seem disposed to go to Augusta to Meet the Superintendant. Says he Cannot Split his Body in two, for he Wanted to go to See the Spaniards & to Settle them on the Florida Point Where they are now a Visiting & that he was to go & See them first. But I Shall Endeavour to Prevail on him to go to Mr. Galphin’s to Meet Mr. Stuart.”

I Presume your Excellency has been Informed of those Spaniards being at the Cape, If there be any Truth in it, however Sir I thought it necessary you Should be mad Acquainted with any Information. . . .

John Gordon to James Grant, Charles Town, 29 October 1768. JGP: R16; F203-205.

. . .

By the next opportunity I shall be able to write Your Excellency more particularly with respect to St. Marks. I have hopes that plan may help to attend for some of my East Florida Sufferings. . . .

John Stuart to James Grant, Charles Town, 16 December 1768. JGP: R16; F279-281.

I returned from my Tour round the Frontiers, the 29th Ultimate, when I was with the Cherokees I had the pleasure of receiving Your Excellency’s Letter of September 22 and at my Arrival in Town that of October 20.

I finished the Business I had in Charge with the Cherokees and Creeks, as well as I could wish or expect. [O]f the former there were 310 amongst whom all the great Chiefs of the Nation; of the Latter 360 Lower Creeks only, among them all their Chiefs & Beloved Men. My Conferences with both Nations, were Conducted with equal Confidence & Friendship on both sides and no Objection started to the Boundary Lines agreed upon at different Meetings, which were Ratified & Confirmed by Treaties, the Line behind your Province now ratified is according to the Treaty at Picolata without variation.

The upper Creeks sent a Messenger to acquaint me that they were upon the Point of setting out to meet me according to my Invitation when the Town of Pucknatallahassa was attacked, and set on Fire, by the Chactaws, who killed & Carried off a number of People, they are much disappointed in having their Offers of Accommodation rejected, and are meditating a great Blow in Revenge. They rejected the Offer I made them last year of Mediating in their Quarrels, and now they find it necessary for obtaining the Peace which they wish for, and have applied to me for it. I shall endeavour to Sit them to rights.

I inclose your Excellency, an Abstract from the Treaty of Ratification which relates to the Line behind your Province, and as soon as a fair Copy of the Treaty can be made out it shall be sent to you. I also send an Abstract of my Conferences with the Lower Creeks, by which you will see Sempoyaffe’s Request for Your Excellency’s joining with me in interceeding for his Son’s Pardon. This Son Lympike was the person who murthered three Persons behind Georgia, in 1765 of which we had Accounts when at Picolata. [H]e came amongst the rest to Augusta but I would not admitt him into my Sight, & forbad his appearing at the Congress. I think however the Father’s Supplication ought not to be rejected.

Your Excellency will Likewise see that I taxed those Indians with a Clandestine correspondence carried on between them & the Spaniards, your Friend the Young Lieutenant’s [Escuchapé’s] Son, The Young Twin [Togulki] & some People from the Neighborhood of Saint Marks were actually set out to meet the Spaniards on the point of Florida, when the Chiefs came to the Congress at Augusta. I have His Majesty’s orders to be most attentive, to this Correspondence. I think some of your Latchaway Gentry might successfully be employed to watch the Motions of the Spaniards.

I am entirely of your Excellency’s Opinion that it will be extremely improper to Renew our Applications to the Creeks for more Land for some time to Come. I am pretty certain that such Application would not Prove successfull and would otherwise have a bad Effect for which Reason, I did not Hint at it, and I should not Choose to make any requisition of the Sort without Orders from home. In the mean time I am ordered to hasten the marking of the Boundary Line in every Part of the District, the Indians also wish for it.

I did not however appoint any time for setting about this Service behind your Province as I thought it necessary to write Your Excellency on the Subject first, we could not well propose to mark it beyond the Musquito River, the flowing of the Tide Round the Peninsula the Indians consider as a Natural Boundary. They will probably entrust the marking of said Line to the Latchaway Indians in Conjunction with Commissioners appointed by you & my Deputy. I shall Pay the Expences that may arise from the Attendance of a Deputy & Interpreter upon the Occasion the rest is deemed a Provincial charge which will in the new Colonies Ultimately fall upon Government.

I shall Communicate your Excellency’s determination on this matter to the Indians, as soon as you shall make me acquainted with it.

Abstract from the Superintendant’s Conference with the Lower Creek Nation of Indians at a Congress held at Augusta in the Province of Georgia October 14 1768

Friends & Brothers,

I am now going to Talk to you like a Father, to advise you like a Friend and one who has your wellfare and Interest at heart.

The Great King has been informed that a correspondence is carried on between your Nation & the Spaniards, and that there is an Idea of their Settling somewhere on the Sea Coast in the bay of Appalache, and I have his orders to inquire into this matter, I keep no Talks hid from you, and I expect you will be candid and open with me and tell me the truth. You have upon Several different occasions by Solemn Treaties Ceded to the King all the Sea Coast as far as the Tide Ebbs and flows, which Cession you have just ratified and Confirmed in the most Solemn manner, how then can you give any of that Land to the Spaniards. But there is another great obstacle to their Settlement when they obtained Peace and the Restitution of the Havannah &ca. from the Great King it was upon Condition that they should have this Land entirely and never more return to it, if they now tell you that they propose coming they either deceive you, or intend to break their engagement with the Great King, which he will certainly resent. He will not Suffer them to Settle upon those Lands, and what must he (the Great King) think of you for making such a return for his Benefitt.

I need not tell you that the Spaniards are incapable of being such Friends to you as we are, you know them well, you have known them for near two hundred Years, during which time you were constantly Scalping them, what benefits can you reap from them that are Equal to the Great King’s favour and Protection, [who] is Like a Friend and Father. I have Spoken my Mind freely & you and I shall always take the Liberty of advising you when I think you are going wrong. I hope you will always Listen to my Advice which will be for your good.

Escotchaby or the Young Lieutenant Speaks: I Know nothing certain concerning the Spaniards otherwise I should not keep it a Secret from my Father, Such Talks did prevail in the Nation, but I know not upon what Foundation.

Superintendent: Brother Escotchaby, Some time ago I received a Message from you in which you acquainted me that as you was invited to go and meet the Spaniards on the Point of Florida, you could not come to see me, for you could not divide yourself in halves, from which I concluded that you was apprised of the Intention of the Spaniards, and that there was no doubt of their Intention to hold a Meeting with the Creek on the Point of Florida. I likewise know that your Son with the Young Twin [Togulki] is gone to see them, and a Number of people from Tomatle.

Escotchaby. I acknowledge that I had heard of an intended Meeting with the Spaniards, and had thought of going towards the point, that I might learn their Intentions especially as there is plenty of Deer on the point, but when I received my Father’s Talk I altered my Intentions, and determined upon coming to see him. I have however Sent my Son to Learn what the Spaniards are about, and whatever Intelligence he brings Shall be communicated to you faithfully. I do not want the Spaniards amongst us, and I know of no Chief that wants them.

Talleachie, Standing up Speaks: I am Ruler of Ten Towns, I Speak for all my People, I know nothing of the Spaniards, whatever has been transacted with them is a Secret to me. If they came again ___ ___ ______, I shall _____ where to go and Look for ______ I desire my Father may think no more about them.

Pumpkin King Speaks: I want some Scalps I shall be glad to hear that Spaniards are near my Towns. I know nothing of their Intentions to come to our Land again, but I will go on a look for them.

Escotchaby: taking the Superintendant by the hand, says Father, think no more about the Spaniards, you shall hear from me at my return to the Nation.

Abstract from the Superintendant’s Conference with the Lower Creek Nation of Indians at a Congress held at Augusta in the Province of Georgia the 14th of October 1768

Sempoyaffé Speaks: Father, Altho’ Tallechea & Captain Aleck are appointed Speakers for our Nation yet I desire to be heard, as I have a few words to Say. At Picolata I met you and Governor Grant in the Woods. I then Said that if any of my People should Spoil the path by Spilling Blood in it I would contribute all in my power to make it Straight and wash it Clean.

Malatchie who Governed my Nation for many Years, was a good man, and was a friend to all white men, but he always considered the English as our Father, with his last Breath he recommended to his people to hold the English fast, as their truest Friends and most capable to Serve them. He is dead, he left a Son who has forgot the Advice of his Father. [H]e resembles a Snake in his bed Spreading the poison of his breath all around him. [I]t is he who makes the Young people Mad.

I am now an old Man, and give Publick Testimony that the English have always been our best Friends, with them many Years ago, we made Old Fields of the Appalachi Settlements, and we fought the Chactaws; all the Indian Tribes are our Younger Brothers but the English are our Fathers.

You know (my Father) that at Picolata Governor Grant made me his Friend, and I engaged for the Good Behaviour of my People. I then hear nothing but good Talks. But Since that Time my Son’s Behaviour has covered me With Shame, and I never have appeared at any Publick Meeting, ‘till now that you have Sent for me. I am [grieving?] that my Blood should be capable of Hurting our Friends the English, and my grief is dearly Augmented by the reproaches of my own people. Yet he is my Son and I feel for him like a Father: You are advanced in Years and have Children; judge then of my feeling by your own. [I]f he can be forgiven I will answer for his behavior in future, I engage that while he Breaths he will be a firm Friend to the English, that he will no more Listen to bad Counsellors.

Father. I hope you and Governor Grant will interceed with the Great King for my Son’s pardon, if that can be obtained it will remove the Cloud which hangs over my Aged Head, and I shall again with Confidence attend Publick Meetings and Listen to the words of my Father.

This Medal and Commission you gave me that I might Serve the Great King. I have been unlucky with them. [M]y Son’s Behavior has rendered me unworthy of them, take them back and bestow them on one more worthy.

[Sempoyaffé then] Lays his Medal & Commissions on the Table

The Superintendant Said: Friend Sempoyaffé, You have always been considered by me as a Good man. I am Sorry for the distress into which your Son’s behavior has plunged you, I Sincerely feel for you, he has Committed unprovoked Murthers, in Contempt of the Solemn engagements entered into by your Nation with us as well as of your Paternal advice and Example. You must be convinced that Satisfaction is due to us, and of the Justice of your Nation in having Banished him.

It is not in my power to forgive him, but I will faithfully communicate what you request to his Majesty, ______ ________ shall acquaint you, with whatever _______ I may receive relative to your Son. I will also acquaint Governor Grant that you beg for and depend upon his intercession with the Great King. [I]n the mean time I return you your Medal and Commission, which I hope you will continue wear. I am Convinced that none of your Country men deserves it better. 

John Stuart to James Grant, Charles Town, 21 December 1768. JGP: R16; F298-299.

I have already had the Honor of writing to your Excellency by this Opportunity. This will be delivered by Mr. Sinnot who returns to your Province on a Trading Scheme, the particulars of which he will communicate to your Excellency. The People he is connected with are Men of Capital, and engage to Support him, provided he can obtain a Licence from you to Trade at Appalache, he desired me to interceed with your Excellency for your Protection, which request I could not refuse complying with. I therefore hope you will Pardon the Liberty, which I am the more induced to take as I think, such a Company settled at Appalache, supported by men of Capital, here and in England, will be an acquisition to the Province.

James Grant to John Stuart, St Augustine, 22 December 1768. JGP: R2; F159-160.

My last Letter was dated October 20. I have not had the pleasure of hearing from you since that time but have been informed by John Gordon that you settled matters to the satisfaction of the Creeks at Augusta, which was a great point, as they are a troublesome Pack, Mr. Gordon mentions a Treaty of the Creeks with Spaniards, they the Creeks may spread such a Report to raise their consequence for they have their Politicks like other Men, but no such treaty can exist the Creeks you know gave up all the Sea Coast & as far as the Tyde flows at the first Congress which was held at Picolata, besides the Spaniards are not in Disposition to make new Settlements, they are even in some Danger of losing what they have already been put in possession of there are not fifty Spanish Soldiers at New Orleans – the French are dissatisfied with the Spanish Government and threaten to send D’Ulloa to Madrid if he do’s not come into their terms, & secure their Liberties to them, in the mean time business is carried on in the name of the French King, & all orders are signed by Aubry, who finds himself in a disagreeable Situation.

Our Crackers as you’l see by the enclosed Talk lately played me a Trick and killed a young Indian the son of Nipké a Warrior of some note from the Usechees, I was lucky enough to lay hold of two of the Hunter, who I am convinced are quietly from many concurring Circumstances, but you know there can be no positive proof premeditate Murder, but ‘tis to be hoped there will be circumstantial proof sufficient to do their Business, and if they are found Guilty in the Eye of the Law, they are in great danger indeed and shall Walk for certain. I flatter myself this Accident will be attended with no bad consequences as I have sent Nipké away in as good humor as could be expected, & thoroughly convinced that I am inclined to give satisfaction, and ‘tis to be hoped that my Talk which I have ordered to be carried to every Town in the Nation will prevent their looking any Notice at least any Revenge for what has happened.

The 21st Regiment goes to Charles Town for a few Months ‘till Barracks can be provided for them here, but they are not to remain there, and Charles Town is not mentioned in the Disposition of the Troops sent from England.

. . . [Speaks of European affairs]

James Grant to John Stuart, St Augustine, 1 February 1769. JGP: R2; F171-174.

. . .

I am glad you settled the Boundary business to your satisfaction with the Cherokees & Lower Creeks, the last since the return of their Plenipotentiaries from Augusta complain that too much of their Country was given up to Georgia, when the Line was drawn and that the white people want to get possession of all their hunting Grounds, those Talks are of no consequence, but you know that something must be said by our Indian Neighbours in consequence of Publick meetings where any point is given up, and tho’ the Line was drawn agreeable to former & solemn Treaties, yet it appears to them like a new Cession of Country when the Theory of a Treaty is carried into practical execution, tho’ that measure was absolutely necessary to prevent the irregular encroachments of established Provinces where no addition of Territory will probably be wanted in half a Century, I should think it prudent to postpone the final fixing a line behind this Infant Colony. Leaving it open can be attended with no Inconvenience, for as nearly as I can judge no Land shall be granted beyond the Limits yet fixed at Picolata & since ratified at your late conference, but if the back line of a twenty thousand Acre tract in some places upon the Westside of the River St. Johns should pass the boundary a little it would be no great matter, & could give no offence as all the settlements will of course be made close to the River, and those settlements made upon the front Lines of such large Tracts can never affect the Indians in their hunting Interest. The Surveyors shall not intentionally or knowingly pass the Boundary, I only mention to you what possibly may happen upon the Westside of St. Johns. If the Line is not drawn the Inconveniency[,] if it can be called one[,] is trifling, & therefore I think we had better let our Creek Friends breath a little and wait a favorable opportunity, in order to kill two days with one store, by adding a little more territory to the province at the same time that the Line is fixed.

An addition of Country will soon be wanted to this Colony, if our present planters meet with the Success which I look for in the course of this Year & next, what I point at is that part of the Country which is situated between the Rivers St. Johns & Acklawaugh which runs parallel to St. Johns and forms a peninsula, by this means we should have the Acklawaugh for the Western Boundary, for the length of its course, which would answer better than any artificial Line which can be drawn or described, I am convinced Lord Hillsborough will not disapprove of the delay, when he finds we act in concert and for the best, if His Lordship should be of a different opinion His Majesty’s Commands to you to fix the Line with the Indians can soon be carried into Execution, but if you agree in opinion with me ‘tis probable that His Lordship will leave us to Judge of the time to conclude the business.

I am convinced the Spaniards never had the most distant Idea of forming a Settlement, they come into the Bay of Tampa and to other parts of the Province to fish, and if any of the Indian Hunters happened to fall in with them they give them presents to prevent their disturbing their fishing Boats. In 1767 two Indians went on Board one of the Little Vessels to the Havannah & were well fed & well Clothed by the Spanish Governor, but the Indians become uneasy at their absence, and applied to me at the last meeting at Picolata, to send a message to the Spanish Governor to know what was become of them, but before the meeting broke up an Indian arrived who brought an account of their Return into the Nation.

John Gordon is to establish a Trading House at St. Marks, and I flatter myself to be able by that means to draw the Creek Trade from Augusta. It is but reasonable that East Florida should have the Credit exporting the Skins, as the Deer are killed chiefly upon this Peninsula for the Lower Creek Hunting grounds lies within this Province tho’ their Towns more properly belong to Georgia. Brigadier Haldimand is to leave a small detachment at St Marks ‘till Mr. Gordon sends people to take possession, & there will be Skins and an Assortment of Military stores left for the Security of the Fort, which will give some sort of Countenance to the Trader upon his first Establishment. If I had not been engaged to Mr. Gordon, I should at your desire have given a Licence to Mr. Sinnot to trade at the Fort of Appalaché, tho’ in fact I never had a good opinion of him, but as he came last time recommended by you, I had him to Dinner & took more notice of him than usual, in return he explained against the method of Tryal of Williams who Murdered the Indian & who confessed the Murder, to our present person Mr. Henderson before he was brought from the Goal to the place of Execution. Mr. Sinnot reflected upon Mr. Drayton for his method of proceeding tho’ he Drayton was allowed by every Gentleman who was present to have summed up the Evidence with great propriety and precision, & Mr. Sinnot blamed the Jury for bringing the Fellow in guilty. In conversation with Mr. Ross the Foreman of the Jury, who is a very sensible intelligent man, but was so angry at Sinnot’s impertinence that he was going to knock him down, the Jury in fact was composed of the first people in the Province & without disparagement to any other Country, was as good and as Creditable a Jury as ever was brought together in any part of America. Sinnot was summoned to attend the Court, & if he had not pretended to be sick he would have been publickly reprimanded, if not committed for reflecting in so scandalous a manner upon the highest Court of Judicature in the Province. Sinnot just adopted the Stiles of the Crackers who think it very hard indeed that a White Person should suffer for killing an Indian tho’ those same Indians if the Murderer had not been detected would in all probability have laid waste this Province in a few Months, this was the reason of my not writing by Sennot, who I could have nothing to do with, after behaving with so little decency to the first people in the Province.

I wish I could help Sempoiaffé out of his Distress on account of the Murder committed by his Son Sempike. As it happened in Georgia I think of mentioning it to Governor Wright, I am afraid of giving him offence by applying directly to His Majesty for a Pardon otherwise agreeable to my one eyed Brothers request. I should have mentioned it to the Earl of Hillsborough, but I am rather cautious in appearing openly in favor of the Guilty Indian, as I have so lately had a Woodsman so hanged by way of Example & satisfaction, for some people of that Class rather think already that I am too fond of my Indian Brothers, who in fact I always look upon as good & usefull Subjects to His Majesty, but we must overlook their Faults, which in time will be got the better of, & ‘tis not fair in a civilized people to expect perfection from savages who have no coercive power.

Poor Alsenar the Interpreter after a tedious Illness died a few days ago, he was fond of Rum but usefull in his way, I shall miss him at times. Before his Death he was informed that you was to allow him pay to the first of November last, & that I should take care of his future subsistence.

.      .     . [The remainder is a discussion of Gordon’s salary and method of receiving it.]

James Grant to William Knox, St Augustine, 4 March 1769. JGP: R2; F181-182.

I wrote you February 10, since that time we have had no Communication with Europe or America except a Vessel from Pensacola with a Detachment of the 31st Regiment & an account that Brigadier Haldimand was to come by the way of St. Marks Appalache and that we may look for him in all this Month, his Presence will give a shove to our Military Buildings, which have hitherto advanced with a very slow pace. . . .

Since the Execution of Williams who murdered the Indian at St. Johns, I have had a number of visitors. The Cow Keeper I mentioned in my last Letter as our nearest Neighbour is a privileged person, & he with his attendants st[u]ck to the Town ‘till I was heartily tired of them. I thought to get rid of them by going out of Town, but he never lost sight of Mr. Skinner who has the Rum, Provisions & Presents under his care. The Chihaw King did me the honor to dine with me today, he is a Medal Chief and of course is intitled to respect. There are several Gentlemen of Note with him from the most distant Towns of the Lower Creeks, the Upper Ones dont trouble me.  (Sehayheawih?) Indian who keeps a Store is likewise here you may have seen him in Georgia his effects are reckoned worth four hundred pounds Sterling. Many of the Indians are now desirous to get Cattle which I endeavor to encourage, if we can once bring them to have property which is not destroyed at their Death, they will soon become more Civilized, & less apt to commit Hostilities against White People or Indians. . . .

John Stuart to James Grant, Charles Town, 15 March 1769. JGP: R18; F97-105.

I am honored with Your Excellency’s letter of 1 February, which the necessity I was under of taking a Tour to the Southward of the Metropolis prevented my Answering sooner.

Lauchlan McGillivray who attended marking the Boundary Line behind Georgia as my deputy acquainted me that the Indians employed by the Lower Creeks upon that occasion made many difficulties, and with much Trouble were brought to Consent to mark it as stipulated, however the Business was effected in November, and I hope we shall hear no more about it. In writing to my Lord Hillsborough some Time ago concerning the Line behind Your Province I mentioned your Inclination that the marking [of] it should for some Time be postponed, as you are much confined by the Western Limits agreed upon at Picolata, he has not replied to that Part of my Letter. I shall again write upon the Subject & quote your Opinion, in which I shall fully concur & if at the same Time you will mention it also to His Lordship, I doubt not but he will acquiesce in the Delay. I am entirely of your Sentiments, that a natural Boundary formed by the Acklawaugh, the length of its Course, will be better than any Artificial Boundary, & serve much better to obviate disputes; in the mean time I am entirely easy with Regard to the Tracts to be Run on St. Juan’s River, as I am certain your Excellency is as carefull to avoid giving Umbrage to the Indians, as I can possibly be. I shall only add upon this Subject, that I shall most Cordially concur with your Excellency in whatever you shall Judge proper for the good of His Majesty’s Service in General and of your Province in Particular, with respect to the Boundary Line of East Florida.

I cannot take upon me to Say what the Intentions of the Spaniards may be or have been; but it became incumbent upon me to Communicate to the Ministry the Intelligence which from Time to time I received, and the Indians certainly entertained a Notion that Settlement was intended by the Spaniards somewhere on the Western side of your Peninsula, which gave many of them pleasure, as they had not forgot the advantages, they had used to Reap from the Competition which formerly subsisted for their Friendship, their Expectations they communicated to the Cherokees, and there can be no doubt but many of their Chiefs were invited to a Meeting with the Spaniards about the Bay of Tampa in October last, to which the Young Twin [Togulki] & the Lieutenant’s [Escochabe] Son with a number from Tomautly went; what the Object of the meeting was or how far the Spanish Government countenanced it I have not learnt, but I employed proper Emissaries, & whatever they can learn shall be communicated to you, about this Time they will have Returned to their Towns from Hunting.

If there is any advantage to be reaped from the Trade at Saint Marks, I am much better pleased that John Gordon should enjoy it than any other Person. When Sinnot applied to me for a Letter to your Excellency, I knew nothing of Mr. Gordon’s Intentions, I could not well deny Sinnot’s Request, and I was the readier to Comply as I understood that the People who proposed to be Concerned with him were capable of Investing a large Sum of money in the trade.

The Execution of the Man who killed Nipke’s son cannot fail of having a good Effect as well on the Conduct of your Crackers as the Opinion of the Indians who must be convinced that our Intentions are Corresponding to our Possessions & the Governors mean to do Justice. Sinnot’s behaviour upon the Occasion was extreamly indiscreet & improper there is certainly something very wrong in the Man, which Accounts for his failure in every Plan of Life, he ever adopted he is at Present somewhere in this Province but I have nothing more to say to him.

Sempoyaffe’s application will appear in this Journal of the Congress should His Majesty think proper to Pardon his Son, we may find it the easier to Prevail on him to become an Instrument in obtaining an Additional Cession of Land to your Province, he has much Influence with the Young Lieutenant [Escochabe], who has more to do in Land Affairs, than any other Indian of the Lower Creeks being a priviledge annexed to his Family. I wrote to my Lord Hillsborough upon the subject of the Deputies and have his Answer which Exactly Corresponds with your Idea of the Matter. If I can keep within the Limits proposed of £3000 no fault will be found with the Establishment, I have also Convinced General Gage, who has altered his Opinion. I am infinitely obliged to your Excellency for your Advice upon the Occasion and the kind Offers of your Assistance which I shall thankfully accept of. My Lord Hillsborough has afforded an Opportunity by desiring an Estimate, which I am about & shall send by the Packett, by drawing on the General I am obliged to purchase goods at an Advance of 15 Per Cent in this province this Consideration alone will induce them to acquiesce in the Payer of my Memorial. This alteration will be most agreeable to me; for the difficulty as well as the Expence of getting Money from New York is inconceivable. I shall literally follow the Plan proposed by you, and as Soon as Possible send you a Copy of this Memorial and an Account of the Steps I shall take.

Near Twelve Months ago I acquainted your Excellency that I had obtained an order for 5000 Acres of Land in your Province. I at some Time empowered John Graham to Transact the Business for me, and applied to John Harvey who is nowhere, and says that he will place the Survey in the Forks of Nassau River, where he knows of some Swamp which never has been Surveyed.

I shall be extreamly obliged to your Excellency, for granting the Warrant Accordingly, and shall direct my Attorney to Apply in the proper Manner and I should employ some Negroes immediately in making a Settlement there provided I could have the Grant. Mr. Harvey at same time begg’d of me to interceed with your Excellency for the Grant of His 500 Acres on Lyford’s Creek St. Mary’s.

Whatever my Sentiments of the Governor’s disposition to the Superintendant might have been be assured Sir that I was convinced of your goodwill to me and my Family and from a Consciousness of the Reciprocal Inclinations. I take the Liberty of Troubling you as a friend which I am Convinced you will pardon.

James Wright to James Grant, Savannah, 15 June 1769. JGP: R18; F240-242.

It Gave me great Pleasure to hear of your health by our Friend John Graham, but I most heartily wish the Continuance of it and altho’ I Presume you have had the Same Intelligence that I have, yet I think it my duty to Acquaint your Excellency that by my last Accounts from the Creek Country I am Informed of an odd Adventure & interview between a Party of the Creeks & the Spaniards at the Havanah, and that I Rather think may deserve Some attention, as if ever a Small Fishing or Hunting Party Should ever get Footing, it may in time Prove injurious & a Serious Matter. My Accounts are that Some Indians having met with a few Spaniards on the Florida Coast a Fishing (with whom they had been formerly Acquainted at St. Augustine) they were Prevailed upon by the Spaniards to go with them to the Havanah, where they received a kind Talk from the Governor and a Present of Rum, Sugar, Tobacco & Salt and that the Creeks were invited to meet the Spaniards again 4 Moons afterwards at a Place Appointed (I think Flint River Mouth) when it is Supposed that the Cowetas & Hitchetaws will accommodate the Spaniards, or at least Permit them to Settle Somewhere in the Appalachee Bay. This Seems to be the general Opinion of the Traders & of many Indians, Some of whom Particularly Capt Aleck & the Pumpkin King with all their Towns are much averse to it, and Aleck has been with me on the Occasion. If there be really any intention of this Sort I Presume it might be Easily Frustrated. I am not clear in whether this matter may fall within your Jurisdiction or Governor Eliot’s [West Florida] but think it Proper to Communicate my intelligence to you.

It gives me much Pleasure to find that the War between the Creeks & Chactaws is vigorously [contested] this Summer, & hope it may Continue for 7 years to Come, as I am Clear its a most fortunate Event for those Provinces, in Short Nothing Else keeps us in Peace with the Creeks, who are a most insolent Lot of Rascals.

John Gordon to James Grant, Charles Town, 19 July 1769. JGP: R18; F255-256.

This acknowledges the receipt of Your Excellency’s favours by Doran & Mr. Lesslie the first covering a Bill of Exchange on London payable to my order for Twelve hundred pounds Sterling to be negotiated and apply’d for Your Account as the said letter directs. I shall write an answer to both fully by Captain Sutherland.

It was some time before a proper person could be got for the charge of St. Marks and we were unwilling to put any other in trust. Daniel McMurphy who has been several years in Mr. Galphin’s employ, & has supposed himself an honest sober man, will set off by land between the 20th & 25th Current from Augusta for that purpose, and apply to the men at the Fort to have it delivered to him – I intended that he should first have waited on Your Excellency But Mr. Galphin has misunderstood me and he will be sett off before I can have an opportunity of explaining myself farther to him, however I hope you will be so good as to send such directions as You shall think proper. It is probable that some of the Men may have some knowledge of McMurphy as he has liv’d in some of the trading Villages or Towns there abouts.

This, if it reaches Savannah in time, will be accompanied by a letter from Mr. Galphin to Your Excellency. He is so far from being an intelligible scribe that I am often at a loss in collecting his meaning altho’ I have been many years accustomed to his manner. He has long been accustomed to supply the Indians about St. Marks, by his traders, with goods, and has for sometime past had it in contemplation to settle a Store at the desire of the Indians on their ground somewhere above Mr. Spalding’s upper Store, and he is now in hopes of Your Excellency’s permission. His letter is for that intent, and he has requested me to second his application. The intimate connection that there is between his interest and mine in the Indian trade; and the many testimonys I have received of Your Excellency’s goodness, influenced me to entreat Your countermand and protection as well as permission to the people he has employed for this purpose. They are Sellers & Graham, to whom he has added a relation of his own, one Pooler, I think he evicts him, who is to take care of the principal Store. Graham & Pooler set off from my Savannah Store, as today, in a trading boat for La Chua [Alachua] where they have been settled, and one or both of them are directed to wait on Your Excellency with the letters.

A report has made its way overland from West Florida of the Death of the Governor attended with a circumstance that will reflect no credit on his memory. You may remember the fate of Sr. Danvers Osborne. I hope the report is without foundation. There are not people of consequence enough there to thwart a Governor or render his administration irksome – What else could occasion such an accident.

John Stuart to James Grant, Charles Town, 4 August 1769. JGP: R18; F293-295.

. . .

I have lately received several Letters from the Traders in the Lower Creek Nation; and talks from Chiefs, particularly the Young Lieutenant [Escochabe] & Pumpkin King; acquainting me that the Young Twin [Togulki] & Lieutenant’s son returned in April last from the Havannah for which place they embarked in a Spanish Vessel at the Bay of Tampa in November. They were accompanyed by several other Cowetas, they all received presents of Money rum ammuntion and laced Cloaths from the Spanish Governors, who proposed sending an Officer to hold a Congress with the Chiefs of the Upper and Lower Nations, at the Mouth of Appalachicola River in September next. The Pumpkin King proposes our sending a Ship to intercept the Spaniards as the most effectual Method of Breaking this Intercourse, which will at least help to render the Creeks more insolent and ungovernable.

I am to Meet the Mortar and Emistisiguo at Augusta, in October, when I shall have an Opportunity of learning the State of the Nation & I have taken the necessary precautions to get intelligence of every transaction in the Lower Towns.

At the great Congress held by Sir William Johnson, at Fort Stanwix; he purchased from the Six Nations and Northern Tribes, all the Lands to the Eastward of the Ohio, as far as the Mouth of the Cherokee River and up to its Source; which includes all the Cherokee hunting Grounds; and has given the province of Virginia a pretence to make settlements on the Lands reserved by the Cherokees as agreed upon by My Treaty with them in October last, representations have been made by Lord Botecourt, & I Submitted all my proceedings relative to said Business. [T]he whole was laid before & reported upon, by the Lords of Trade; my proceedings are approved and His Majesty has ordered, that a New Negotiation be set afoot in order to settle a New line according to courses particularly specified in the King’s order, as soon as the province of Virginia shall have provided a sufficient sum to Defray the necessary expence. [B]ut in case the House of Burgesses of Virginia refuses to comply with His Majesty’s requisition, the Line agreed upon by me last Year, [is] to be marked out an finally ratified.

Sir William Johnson’s having suffered the pretensions of the Northern Tribes to extend to the Southward of the Conhoway, has been much disapproved of.

The Gazettes of this province will give your Excellency a clearer Idea of our Politicks than I can, who endeavor as much as possible to Keep out of the Scrape, by being a mere messenger: in the Mean time we are sorry that we are to lose our Regiment, the Officers of which do not dislike their quarters at the New Barracks.

Mr. Jollie acquainted me of his having obtained a Warrant for my 5000 acres on Nassau [River] with every circumstance relative to that transaction for which I am most gratefull and begg leave to return thanks in the Sincerest Manner.

Earl of Hillsborough to James Grant, Whitehall, 4 August 1769. JGP: R18; F291-293.

I have received and laid before the King your Letter to me Number 27 and am commanded to signify to you His Majesty’s Pleasure that you do forbid, and take every method in your Power to prevent any intercourse between the Subjects of Spain and the Savages within the Territories under your Government, which Correspondence however innocent, in its present Views and objects, may if Suffered to pass without notice be extended to dangerous Connections and lay the foundation of Claims and pretentions prejudicial to His Majesty’s Rights.

I was made acquainted by Mr. Stuart, before I received your Letter, of your wish in respect to deferring the final Settlement of the Boundary Line between your Colony and the Lands of the Creek Indians and His Majesty acquiescing in the reasons Stated for the delay, directed me in the last dispatch I wrote to Mr. Stuart to signify His Royal approbation of what you proposed.

John Gordon to James Grant, Charles Town, 1 September 1769.
JGP: R18; F316-320.

. . .

The Spaniards are anxious by all accounts to get a footing in Florida again. If I can get no redress at home for so large a property wrested from me [in reference to the millions of acres of land Gordon and Jesse Fish purchased from the Spaniards evacuating Florida in 1763-1764, which the British refused to recognize] I think I may be at liberty to apply where a remedy may be had, and if Great Britain will neither confirm a purchase I made from Spanish subjects by virtue of a Solemn Treaty, nor give me a reasonable equivalent for it, I cannot be blamed for [protesting?] a right so obstinately contested, to any other Power that will purchase it of me, and I don’t know but some Savage Market may be the best I can offer my titles at the Bay of Tampa on one side of the Rock & the Mosquittoes on the other will afford great conveniencys for [settling?] if Poor Paoli had money he might find a Great Use for Legal Cessions. . . .

James Grant to John Stuart, St Augustine, 4 September 1769. JGP: R2; F207-208.

I am favored with yours of August 4, & had the pleasure to receive that of March 15. I wrote to Lord Hillsborough with regard to the Boundary Line of this Province in the Terms which I mentioned to you, which you approved of & agreed to write in concert therefore that matter was settled.

Your Lands upon Nassau [River] were Surveyed as you desired upon Mr. Jollie’s Application, & I did not write because in fact I had nothing to trouble you with.

The Spaniards will no doubt endeavour to keep up a Friendly Intercourse with the Creek Indians, to prevent their disturbing them in their Fishery upon the Florida Coast, which Branch of Trade cannot be prevented ‘till this Province is better Inhabited, & even then I am not sure if it would be our Interest to discourage it, for in that case they could not avoid having some intercourse with the English Settlers and some of their Dollars must find the way into this Country of which there is a great scarcity in this place at present. Their Fishing is attended with no Utility to us, as we do not fall in with them, but I do not think we need be under the apprehension of an Inconvenience arising from it. Their Presents may make the Creeks Saucy but can hardly render them Hostile, the Spaniards have no title or pretence to form a Settlement upon any part of this Coast, as the Indians have already given up their Country to His Majesty as far as the Tide flows. But I should not think it the Interest of Great Britain to oppose the Spaniards in forming a settlement in any part of the Floridas, for as the Spaniards could not support such a Settlement, it would soon become a usefull English Colony.

By keeping up a much wished for intercourse with the Havannah, the Creeks behave well enough to their Province, they at times carry off a Horse, our Crackers use them in the same way, and when their Hunt is not successful, if they fall into the Neighbourhood of a drove of Cattle, I am afraid they use freedom with a Bullock, but tho’ they are not troublesome at this distance from their Towns, they are rather Insolent in the Return, and I have so far altered my opinion with regard to Indian Politicks, as to be convinced that it is not [in] our Interest to put an Immediate stop to the War between the Creeks & Chactaws, if it was in our power, for that gives them employment, & if we can only keep them quiet with regard to His Majesty’s Subjects for a few Years, they will lose the Idea of war with white people, but ‘till they are more Civilized Indian disputes[,] I mean amongst themselves[,] can hardly be prevented, if they could be put a total stop to, the Indians would be more tractable as well as more usefull. You no doubt acquainted Sir Wm. Johnstone of what had been settled by your Treaty with the Cherokees, ‘tis astonishing therefore to me that he should counteract that Treaty by making an Agreement with the Northern Indians in flat Contradiction to the Terms of yours with the Cherokees. If Gentlemen in Office do no act in concert, the Indians can have no confidence in us [and] they’l never be brought to understand that what is given to them by the beloved man to the Northward, and I wish that Virginia may refuse to defray the Expence of drawing a new Line, that it may remain the same as was agreed upon by you, for Treaties with Indians should be strictly observed without variation, of course if any additional Territory is to be given to Virginia, that addition should be made in consequence of a fresh Treaty concluded by you with the Cherokees, if further encroachments are made upon the Cherokee hunting Ground those poor Indians will soon cease to have an Existence & will dwindle away as the Catawbas have done. There will be an end of Associations, & you will all become quiet again.

Mr. Grenville has joined the Rockingham party & has given up his favorite plan of Taxation – the Ministers to weaken the opposition by taking the American Clamor out of their hands have determined to Repeal all the acts of Parliament which have passed with regard to America, & to do every thing that is pleasing to His Majesty’s American Subjects, declaring at the same time that the power of Taxing America is vested in the Legislature of Great Britain and there the affair will end, & the Sons of Liberty will return to English ___ &ca.

The Regiment was only sent to Charles Town because Chisholm my friend Sutherland & others could not be pleased with Comfortable Huts ‘till the Barracks were put in order, but it was never intended to leave them in Carolina. Many of your Inhabitants would have considered it as a hardship, & we are glad to have them, indeed I have labored hard for five Years to increase the number of Troops but Some how or other we have lost a Regiment in the scuffle, for the Ninth goes home, without being replaced from the Northward, but the Southern Brigade must in the end be compleated, for if America has a Frontier the Southern Provinces must be considered as such.

John Gordon has at last sent Daniel McMurphy to receive & take charge of the Fort & Stores at St. Marks Appalaché he has been an honest man, if he continues to behave well he may be of use, & certainly will be able to supply the Traders at an easier & cheaper rate than they are supplied from Augusta.

James Grant to John Gordon, St Augustine, 18 September 1769. JGP: R2; F211-213

. . .

Sellers and Pooler, nephew to Mr. Galphin, have made their Appearance. I gave them a Letter to Daniel McMurphy with an Order enclosed to the Corporal to deliver up to him Murphy the Fort & Stores at St. Marks Appalache, and I have since wrote to Sellers, Graham & Pooler desiring that one of them may come to Town in order to reside at the Fort of Picolata, which I intend to give for a time as a Store upon your Account, it will answer much better than what you wanted near Spalding’s Store. But my good Friend as I give you the use of two Forts, I must beg that the Leather which is brought to Mr. Galphin’s trading houses may appear to be exported from this Province, it is I’ll agree with you . . . of no Consequence to Great Britain, whether it goes from Georgia or East Florida, but I could rather wish if it is not inconvenient to you to take a Feather out of the Cap of those Saucy Crackers.

I might have mentioned to you long ago that I had received a Letter from the Earl of Hillsborough dated December 10 in which he says that he is sorry that the Claimants under the pretended Spanish purchases had thought fit to deliver the mode of bringing their Claims to an Issue &ca.  And that therefore it would be his Duty to lay my Letter upon that Subject for the Papers transmitted before His Majesty in Council – and there it rests at present, if any thing had been determined you should have been informed of it. I do not absolutely give Credit to Paoli’s total defeat, but I agree in opinion that the Bay of Tampa would be a good Retreat for Loyal Corsicans, and I shall join issue with you in bringing Paoli & them over. I have no great objection to a Spanish Settlement which People seem to be apprehensive of, it would introduce a Dollar Trade which is much wanted & would help an Infant Colony. The poor Spaniards have no other draw in their visits to Florida than to supply the Havana with Fish, & they have no other motive in making presents to Indians than to Cultivate a friendly Intercourse & prevent their Fishermen being Scalped.

. . .

Charles Stuart to James Grant, Apalachee, 23 September 1769. JGP: R18; F331-333.

I arrived here yesterday from St. Joseph’s Bay where I have been ever since September 1. I left Pensacola August 26 in His Majesty’s Ship Tryal Capt Wm Philips, in consequence of information received from the Superintendant of the Spaniards intending to hold a meeting with the Creek Indians some time this month at or near the mouth of the Apalachicola, which information was strongly corroborated by several leading Indians and Traders &ca. in West Florida.

As it is found impracticable or at least unsafe for any of his Majesty’s Ships to double Cape Blaize, so as to lay any where amongst St. George’s Islands in safety I applied to Captain Philips for his boat man’d & Armed which he readily granted, as he did every other assistance he could lend, we were obliged to pull her over a small neck of land which divides St. Joseph’s Bay from the ocean. I was out ten days but could make no discoveries. I was then obliged to return being out of Provisions, and Capt Philips expecting to be relieved, requested I would not ever stay that time: Upon my arrival I found the Druid Sloop Capt Jackson coming to an anchor. I applied to him as I had done to Captain Philips for his assistance which he also politely granted, and immediately fitted out his boat and sent his Lieutenant with me, and as we could see no signs either of Spaniard or Indian, I came here in hopes possibly of meeting some of the latter. Upon my coming I found the Corporal had orders to quit the fort to Mr. Gordon’s Substitute, whom he expected hourly, and he informed me that he had a few damaged Presents belonging to Mr. Stuart left by Mr. Synnot I suppose. Upon examining the articles I found them all unfit for use, some little ammunition excepted and a barrel of flour with a few combs & knives which I took giving the Corporal a receipt for the whole, and leaving the rest, he will shew your Excelly the list of what he had.

In the Evening One Murphy arrived with orders to take possession of the whole Fort & Stores, belonging to the King, I would have left him all mine, which I offered could they have been of any service to him in answering your Excellency’s expectations with respect to horses but as he tells me he cannot purchase a horse but for cash, I thought ‘twas best to take them as I really want them much in West Florida where two articles of Powder and Ball are scarce and in great demand and I cannot at all times be supplied from Carolina. I find Mr. Murphy is much ________ ____ _____ with respect to the sundry stores & Provisions, I have ordered him to take a proper account of every article, and to store them in a proper place, as he is resolved not to use any part ‘till farther orders, and to give the Corporal a receipt for the whole to endemnify him, but it cannot with reason be expected that he can be accountable for them as he leaves but one man to take care of the whole. I however that is their affairs, altho’ the whole is not worth sending for.

I Hear the mad Warrior has returned from Pensacola where he went on his way to war, but Lt. Governor Browne (very Judiciously) gave him some Presents, which he preferred to a scalp, and went home, where he has told that the Spaniards were in Possession of Pensacola & that he should be taken notice of, he told it to Tonaby also, whom I expect here this day and for whom I wait on Purpose to prove the other a liar, as I understand your excellency has been pleased to promote Tonaby, I shall be kind to him on that account if he comes. I also expect a few of the Cowkeeper’s party (who are returning from war) with a wounded Man. He has taken two Chactaw Scalps and I hear the upper Creeks have also taken one or two. It is to be helped they will keep at it ‘till we either give up West Florida or are in a better situation to defend it, as the Spaniards have taken Possession of Orleans, by General O’Reyley with 4500 Men (he arrived at the Baliu July 21) how far this circumstance may correspond with the intended meeting (shou’d they meet) I leave to abler Politicians than I am to determine, or what they can mean by tampering with our Indians upon this event, unless it be to supply their Dock Yard at the Havannah.

. . .

John Gordon to James Grant, Charles Town, 3 October 1769. JGP: R18; F337-340.

. . .

Your Excellency will probably hear before this reaches [you] that 4400 Spaniards in 22 Ships have retaken possession of New Orleans. So great a number, surely, is not necessary to occupy so small a spot. Certain it is that the Spaniards at Havanna suffer the greatest expense & difficulty in furnishing themselves with Masts Yards and Sparrs of all sorts from Sweden & other parts of Europe since the Cession of West Florida to the Crown of Great Britain, which very well accounts for their tampering so frequently with the Creek Indians in order, I presume, to get their liberty & protection in supplying themselves off of their lands about the Bay of Appalache or St. Joseph, and I wish they may not be meditating a design of extending themselves. If they had West Florida without a War I should not be sorry for it. In that case a good establishment about the Bay of Tampa would be found necessary, and help to make East Florida a respectable Province.

James Grant to John Gordon, St Augustine, 6 December 1769. JGP: R2; F221-223.

. . .

The Indians when they return from the Chactaw War, will ease me of some Rice Corn & Flour. Talking of them puts me in mind of Pease, red & black eyed will answer equally, you may ship some of them in place of Corn. . . .

The Cow Keeper is just returned from War having taken two Chactaw Scalps. He complains of Pensacola says ‘tis a poor hungry place to make up for the West Florida a deficiency he took St. Marks in his way home & borrowed a Barrel of Flour and a Barrel of Pork. There is but one man at the Fort, if Mr. Galphin & you don’t keep more people there the Indians will follow the Cow Keepers example & borrow what remains in a friendly way