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UNF Limnology Students perform field work at Lake Oneida.
Salt marsh
Oyster beds
Students and professor working with a Benthic tray
gator hatchling
entire class crossing florida creek
Two Herons

Doria Bowers

Doria Bowers headshot


Faculty Bio


(904) 620-1955

Building 59/2313


Research Interests

Mosquito-Borne Viruses of Public Health Concern, PEMS sensor detection of microbes


Areas of Expertise

Teaching Responsibilities: General Biology I, Virology, Histology, Histology Lab, Microbial Intrigues Readings, Integrative Microscopy Lec & Lab, Senior Seminar


Integrative Microscopy fall 2018!



R.N. Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL (1978)

B.S. University of Massachusetts - Boston Harbor Campus (1983)

M.S. George Washington University, Washington DC (1986)

Ph.D. University of Texas at Austin, TX (1991)

Post-doctoral Fellowship: University of Texas Health Science Center- San Antonio, TX (1991-92)

Adjunct Professor Jacksonville University, FL (1993-1998)

Joined UNF faculty in 1999



We investigate arboviruses that are transmitted in nature by hematophagous insects, specifically mosquitoes. Our research focuses on comparing infections of vector mosquitoes; Aedes aegypti, the Yellow Fever Mosquito and Ae. albopictus the Asian Tiger Mosquito with the non-vector mosquito, An. quadrimaculatis. Arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes can and do result in human and/or veterinary infectious diseases. Infection of a mosquito host is prerequisite to biological transmission of such etiologic agents of disease. Currently, such infectious agents have an enormous economic impact worldwide.


Sindbis virus (SINV) is the prototype virus in the Togaviridae family and depends on a horizontal transmission pathway alternating between the vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. This scenario dictates that the virus replicates in two phylogenetically distinct cellular and biochemical milieu. It is this alternation of hosts that is believed to influence Alphavirus evolution. While virions produced in vertebrate and invertebrate cell culture are biologically equivalent, the cellular responses to infection and to various strains of SINV are quite different. We focus our efforts on understanding the infection process in the whole mosquito, a link in the chain of arbovirus transmission. By looking at long-term infection of two similar Aedine mosquitoes, we compare host responses to virus. We have focused our attention on virus in the salivary glands, gut and ovaries; three host organs of importance to virus transmission in nature. Additionally we are challenging mosquitoes with different SINV variants in order to eke-out successful persistent genotypes. Most recently we are analyzing mosquito response to insecticides following SINV infection. In the current global-climate of emerging and re-emerging diseases, investigations into the basic biology/virology of arboviruses will further efforts to combat mosquito-borne infectious diseases.


Currently, we are challenging mosquitoes with GFP-SINV and comparing the infection transit in vector (Aedine) and non-vector (Anopheline) mosquitoes. Additionally, our goals are to further investigate the intricacies of infection and escape barriers between these two genera. What are the tissue-level involvement(s) that compose a vector verses a non-vector?


Selected Publications

  1. Gauntt CJ, Higdon A, Bowers DF, Maull E, Wood J, and Crawley R. 1993. What lessons can be learned from animal model studies in viral heart disease? Scand. J. Infectious Disease Supplement, 88:49-65.
  2. Gauntt CJ, Arizpe HM, Higdon AJ, Wood HJ, Bowers DF, Rozek MM and Crawley R. 1995. Molecular mimicry, anti-Coxsackievirus B3 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and myocarditis. J. Immunology, 154:2983-2995.
  3. Bowers DF, Abell* BA and Brown DT. 1995. Replication and tissue tropism of the alphavirus Sindbis in the mosquito Aedes albopictus. Virology, 212: 1-12.
  4. Bowers, DF, CG Coleman*, DT Brown. 2003. Sindbis Virus-Associated Pathology in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Medical Entomology 40 (5):698-705.
  5. Bowers, D.F. and Atkins, D.L. 2004. The Avian Fissura Prima: Differential Accumulation of Extracellular Matrix at a Fold. J. Morphology 262:780-790.
  6. Maria del Pilar Corena, Leslie VanEkeris, Ma. Isabel Salazar, Doria Bowers, Molly M. Fiedler, David Silverman, Chingkuang Tu, and Paul J. Linser. 2005. Carbonic anhydrase in the adult mosquito midgut. J. Exp. Biol. 208:3263-3273.
  7. Vo, Mai* and Bowers, Doria F. 2006. Arbovirus lifecycle: links in a chain… Technical Bull. FMCA, Vol. 7, Pgs. 31- 34.
  8. Bowers, D.F. 2008 Alphavirus probes for dissecting the structural integration of virus transit in the mosquito. In: Morris, S and Vosloo, A. Molecules to Migration:The Pressures Life. Univ. BRISTOL & Univ. KwaZula-Natal: Medim. Internat. Proc.131-142.
  9. Vo*, M., Linser, P.J. and Bowers, D.F. 2010. Organ-Associated Muscles in Aedes albopictus Respond Differentially to SINV. J. Med. Entomol. 47(2): 215-225.
  10. Qualls**, W. A., J. F. Day, D. F. Bowers, R. D. Xue. 2011. Altered response to DEET repellent following infection of Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae) with Sindbis virus. J. Med. Entomol. 48: 1126-1230.
  11. Zoe L. Lyski**, Jason J. Saredy**, Kristen A. Ciano**, Jennifer Stem* and Doria F. Bowers. 2011. Blood Feeding Position Increases Success Of Recalcitrant Mosquitoes. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 11; 11;1-7. DOI: 10.1089/vbz.2010.0164.
  12. Qualls**, W. A., J. F. Day, R.D. Xue, D. F. Bowers. 2012. SINV infection alters bloodfeeding responses and DEET repellency in Aedes aegypti. J. Med. Entomol. 49(2):418-423. 2012.
  13. Qualls**, W. A., J. F. Day, R.D. Xue, D. F. Bowers. 2012. Altered behavioral responses of Sindbis virus-infected Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to DEET and Non-DEET based insect repellents. Acta Tropica 122;284-290.
  14. Erica M. Kelly, Daniel C. Moon, & Doria F. Bowers. 2012. Apoptosis in Mosquito Salivary Glands; SINV-Associated and Tissue Homeostasis. J. Gen Virol. 93:2419-2424.
  15. Arthur Omran, Gregory Ahearn, Doria Bowers, Janice Swenson, and Charles Coughlin. Metabolic Effects of Sucralose on Environmental Bacteria. J. Tox. 8:2013
  16. Kristen A. Ciano, Jason J. Saredy and Doria F. Bowers. 2014. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan: An Arbovirus Attachment Factor Integral to Mosquito Salivary Gland Ducts. Viruses 6:5182-5197.
  17. Michael E. Stephens, Terri N. Ellis, Jay S. Huebner, Erica M. Kelly, Doria F. Bowers. 2015. Streptococcal Protein G Enhances Antibody Binding to Platinum Sensor Surfaces. J. Sensor Technology 5:1-6.
  18. Casia Williams, Yiching Wu, Doria F. Bowers. 2015. ImageJ Analysis of Dentin Tubule Distribution in Human Teeth. Tissue & Cell. Available online 26 May, 2015.


  1. Bowers, Doria. 2008. International Conference of Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry. "Molecules to Migration", pg. 36, Massi Mara National Reserve, Kenya 19-25 July 2008.
  2. Bowers, D.F. 2009. Arbovirus Lifecycle in the Mosquito Host. Ciano, KA, EN Mejia, WA Qualls and DF Bowers. Invited to present research and perform as Rapporteur for International meeting sponsored by NIH NIAID; "Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases in Central and Eastern Europe" Sophia, Bulgaria in September, 2009.
  3. Bowers, D.F. 2011. Puzzle Pieces of Importance for Emerging Arboviruses. NIAID/NIH Sponsored Workshop. Emergence and Re-Emergence of Arboviral Infections of Global Health Importance. Rockville, MD, September, 2011. Poster Presentation.
  4. Bowers, DF. 2011. Mosquito-Borne-Viruses in Adult Mosquitoes of Public Health Importance in Florida. Sponsored by World Solutions Against Infectious Diseases (WSAID) in conjunction with "Florida's Deadliest Mosquitoes" exhibit, Museum of Science and History (MOSH), Jacksonville, FL, June, 2011. Oral Presentation.
  5. Bowers, DF. 2011. Alphavirus Hurdles in Mosquitoes: Guts and Glands. Department of Entomology, Univ. FL, Gainesville, FL.
  6. Bowers, DF. 2013. An arbovirus and a mosquito host: links in the chain of transmission. Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, Univ. FL, Gainesville, FL.

Additional 58 International, National and Regional Presentations including UNF student presentors since 1999.