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Tracy P Alloway

Professor | Graduate Program Director

Psychology | College of Arts & Sciences

Areas of Expertise

  • Theory of Working Memory

I am interested in how working memory develops across the lifespan. I am also interested in how culture impacts working memory and am involved in a range of projects with colleagues in Europe, South America, Asia, and South Africa

  • Working Memory in Education

I have published a number of studies on the role of working memory in learning from Kindergarten to High School. I am also interested in the benefits of training Working Memory. I have also published research on the role of working memory in learning in students with ADHD, Motor Dyspraxia, Reading and Language difficulties, and Autistic Spectrum Disorder.

  • Working Memory and Mental Health

I collaborate on a number of projects investigating the relationship between Working Memory in anxiety, depression, and optimism.


Ph.D. Psychology University of Edinburgh, UK

M.Sc Psychology University of Edinburgh, UK

B.Sc. Psychology Liberty University


Tracy Packiam Alloway ( is a Psychology professor and Graduate Program Director at the University of North Florida. She was awarded an Outstanding Undergraduate Teaching Award (2015), as well as the Outstanding International Leadership Award (2014). She was also the recipient of the prestigious Joseph Lister Award (for “outstanding skills in communicating to a non-specialist audience”) from the British Science Association.


Tracy’s research has contributed to scientific understanding of working memory and specifically in relation to education and learning needs. She has shared her research to national organizations, such as the National Center for Learning Disabilities, and as well as internationally to organizations such as the Japanese Society for Developmental Psychology and the Center on Research on Individual Development and Adaptive Education of Children at Risk in Germany, among others.


She also provided advice to the World Bank on the impact of memory and learning in deprived populations. In addition to over 100 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, 7 books, and 2 standardized test batteries on the topic of working memory, her work has also been featured on Good Morning America, the Today Show, Forbes, Bloomberg, The Washington Post, and Newsweek, and many others. She blogs for Psychology Today and the Huffington Post. 


Outstanding Undergraduate Teaching Award, UNF 2015

Outstanding International Leadership Award, UNF 2014

Joseph Lister Award for Social Science, British Science Association 2009

Short-listed for the Michael Young Prize, Economic and  Social Research Council UK 2006


APA, Division 5 representative for International and Public Affairs

Association for Psychological Science

Publications & Presentations


  • Total number of citations = 7394
  • H-index = 38
  • i10-index = 66


Alloway, T.P. (2007). Automated Working Memory Assessment. Pearson Assessment. (15 translations)
Alloway, T.P., Gathercole, S.E., & Kirkwood, H. (2008). Working Memory Rating Scale. Pearson Assessment.


1. Alloway, T.P. (2014). Understanding Working Memory. Sage Publications. (1 Translation).
2. Alloway, T.P. & Alloway, R.G. (2013). The Working Memory Advantage: Train Your Brain to Function Stronger, Smarter, Faster. Simon & Schuster, USA. (19 Translations).
3. Alloway, T.P. & Alloway, R.G. (2012). Working Memory: The Connected Intelligence. (Frontiers in Cognitive Psychology series) Psychology Press, USA.
4. Alloway, T.P. (2010). Improving Working Memory: Supporting Students’ Learning. Sage Publications. (3 Translations).
5. Alloway, T.P. (2010). Training Your Brain For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons.
6. Alloway, T.P. & Gathercole, S. (2006, Editors). Working Memory & Neurodevelopmental Conditions. Psychology Press.
7. Gathercole, S. & Alloway, T.P. (2008). Working Memory & Learning: A Practical Guide. Sage Publications. (5 Translations)


1. Alloway, T.P., Robinson, T., & Frankenstein, A. (2016). Educational Application Working Memory Training. In J. Karbach & T. Strobach (Eds.), Cognitive training: An overview of features and applications. Springer Press.
2. Alloway, T.P. (2012). Fluid Intelligence. In N. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning. Springer Press.
3. Alloway, T.P. & Alloway, R.G. (2012). Working Memory in Development. In T.P. Alloway & R.G. Alloway (Eds). Working Memory: The Connected Intelligence. (Frontiers in Cognitive Psychology series) Psychology Press.
4. Alloway, T.P. and Archibald, L.M. (2011). Working memory in development: links with learning between typical and atypical populations. In P. Barrouillet & V. Gaillaird (Eds). Cognitive Development and Working Memory: A Dialogue Between Neo-Piagetian Theories and Cognitive Approaches, pp. 233-262. Psychology Press.
5. Alloway, T.P. (2006). Working memory and children with developmental coordination disorders. In T.Alloway & S.Gathercole (Eds). Working memory and neurodevelopmental conditions, pp. 161-187. Psychology Press.
6. Cowan, N., & Alloway, T.P. (2008). The development of working memory in childhood. In M. Courage & N. Cowan (Eds). Development of Memory in Infancy and Childhood, 2nd edition, pp. 303-342. Psychology Press.
7. Gathercole, S.E., & Alloway, T.P. (2008). Working memory and classroom learning. In K. Thurman & K. Fiorello, (Eds.) Applied Cognitive Research in K-3 Classrooms. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
8. Gathercole, S.E., Lamont, E., & Alloway, T.P. (2006). Working memory in the classroom. In S. Pickering (Ed.). Working memory and education, pp. 219 -240. Elsevier Press.
9. Swanson, L. & Alloway, T.P. (2012). Working Memory, Learning, and Academic Achievement. In K. Harris,T. Urdan, & S. Graham (Eds). APA Educational Psychology Handbook, Vol 1.
10. Weiss, L.G., Beal, L., Saklofske, D., Alloway, T.P., & Prifitera, A. (2008). Interfacing WISC-IV Assessment and Intervention: Foundations for Practice. In L.G. Weiss, D.H. Saklofske, A. Prifitera, James A. Holdnack (Eds.), WISC-IV Advanced Clinical Use and Interpretation, 2nd edition, pp. 3-68. Academic Press.



  • 2016

1. Alloway R.G., & Alloway, T.P, Magyari, P., & Floyd, S. (2016). Can Taking off Your Shoes be Good for Your Brain? Investigating the Effects of Barefoot Running on Working Memory. Perceptual & Motor Skill, 122, 432-443.
2. Alloway T.P., Copello, E., Loesch, M., Miller, D., Watkins, J., Tarter, A., et al. (2016). Investigating the Reliability and Validity of the Multidimensional Emotional Empathy Scale. Measurement, 90, 438–442.
3. Alloway, T.P., Elsworth, M., Miley, N., & Sekinger, S. (2016). Computer Use and Behavior Problems in Twice-Exceptional Students. Gifted Education International, 32, 113-122.
4. Alloway T.P., Gerzina, A., & Moulder, R. (2016). Investigating the roles of affective processes, trait impulsivity, and working memory in impulsive buying behaviors. Comprehensive Psychology, 5.
5. Alloway, T.P., & Horton, J. (2016). Does working memory mediate the link between Dispositional Optimism and Depressive symptoms? Applied Cognitive Psychology
6. Alloway T.P, Seed, T., & Tewolde, F. (2016) An investigation of cognitive overlap in working memory profiles in children with developmental disorders. International J of Educational Research, 75, 1-6.

  • 2015

7. Alloway R.G., & Alloway, T.P., (2015). Working Memory Benefits of Proprioceptively Demanding Training: A Pilot Study. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 120, 1-10.
8. Alloway, T.P. & Copello, E. (in press). Memory Improvement. In H. Miller (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Theory in Psychology. Sage Publications.
9. Alloway, T.P., & Horton, J. (2015). Gestational age and learning disabilities. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 57, 401.
10. Alloway T.P., McCallum, F., Alloway, R.G., & Hoicka, E. (2015). Liar, Liar, Working Memory on Fire: Investigating the Role of Working Memory in Childhood Verbal Deception. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 137, 30-38.
11. Cockcroft, K., Alloway, T.P., & Copello, E., Milligan, R. (2015). A cross-cultural comparison between South African and British students on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales Third Edition (WAIS-III). Frontiers in Psychology, section Quantitative Psychology and Measurement, 6, 297.

  • 2014

12. Alloway, T.P., Alloway RG & Wootan, S. (2014). Home Sweet Home: The impact of zipcode on cognitive skills. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 124, 124-131.
13. Alloway, T.P. & Cockcroft, K. (2014). Working memory in ADHD: A comparison of British and South African children. Journal of Attention Disorders, 18, 286-293.
14. Alloway, T.P. & Ledwon, F. (2014). Semantic information and working memory in sentence recall in children. International Journal of Educational Research, 65, 1-8.
15. Alloway, T.P., & Stein, A. (2014). Investigating the Link between Cognitive Skills and Learning in Non-Comorbid Samples of ADHD and SLI. International J of Educational Research, 64, 26-31.
16. Alloway, T.P., Runac, R., Kemp, G., & Qureshi, M. (2014). Is Facebook making us selfish? The relationship between narcissism, empathy and social networking. Social Networking, 3, 150-158.
17. Alloway, T.P., Wootan, S., & Deane, P. (2014). Investigating Working Memory and Sustained Attention in Dyslexic Adults. International Journal of Educational Research, 67, 11-17.
18. Holmes, J., Hilton, K., Place, M., Alloway, T.P., Elliott, J, & Gathercole, S. (2014). Children with low working memory and children with ADHD: same or different? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8.
19. Shaughnessy, M., & Moore, T. (2014). An interview with Tracy Alloway on Working Memory. North American Journal of Psychology, 16, 427-438.

  • 2013

20. Alloway, T.P. (2013). What do we know about the long-term cognitive effects of iron-deficiency anemia in infancy. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 55, 401-402.
21. Alloway, T.P. & Alloway, R. G. (2013). Working Memory in the Lifespan: A Cross-Sectional Approach. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 25 84-93.
22. Alloway, T.P., Bibile, V. & Lau, G. (2013). Computerized Working Memory Training: Can it lead to gains in cognitive skills in students? Computers & Human Behavior, 29, 632–638.
23. Alloway, T.P., & Copello, E. (2013). Working Memory: The What, the Why, and the How. The Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, 30, 105-118.
24. Alloway, T.P., & Gregory, D. (2013). The Predictive Ability of IQ and Working Memory Scores in Literacy in an Adult Population. International Journal of Educational Research, 57, 51-56.
25. Alloway, T.P., Horton, J., Alloway, R. G., Dawson, C. (2013). The impact of technology and social networking on working memory. Computers & Education, 63, 10-16.
26. Alloway, T.P., Lawrence, A., & Rodgers, S. (2013). Antisocial Behavior: Exploring Behavioral, Cognitive and Environmental Influences on Expulsion. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 27, 520-526.
27. Alloway TP, Williams S, Jones B, Cochrane F. (2013) Investigating the impact of television watching on toddlers’ vocabulary skills. Early Childhood Education Journal, 42, 343-349.
28. Chrysochoou, E Masoura, E., Alloway, T.P. (2013). Intelligence and working memory: Contributions to reading fluency, writing and reading comprehension in middle school-age children. Scientific Annals-School of Psychology 10, 226-251

  • 2012

29. Alloway, T.P. (2012). Can interactive working memory training improving learning? Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 23, 1-11.
30. Alloway, T.P. (2012). Fluid Intelligence. In N. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning. New York: Springer.
31. Alloway, T.P. (2012).The profile of executive function of very preterm children at 4 to 12 years. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 54, 203-204.
32. Alloway, T. (2012). The neurophysiological performance of visuospatial WM in children with developmental coordination disorder. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 54, 1075-6.
33. Alloway, T.P. & Alloway, R. G. (2012). The impact of engagement with social networking sites (SNSs) on cognitive skills. Computers and Human Behavior, 28, 1748-1754.
34. Alloway, T.P., Doherty-Sneddon, G., & Forbes, L. (2012). Teachers’ Perceptions of Classroom Behavior & Working Memory. Education Research & Reviews, 7, 138-142.
35. Alloway, T.P. & Elsworth, M. (2012). An investigation of cognitive skills and behavior in high ability students. Learning and Individual Differences, 22, 891-895.
36. Cockcroft, K. & Alloway, T.P. (2012). A comparison of working memory and phonological skills between British and South African children. South African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies, 30, 13-24.

  • 2011

37. Alloway, T.P. (2011). A comparison of WM profiles in children with ADHD & DCD. Child Neuropsyology, 21, 1-12.
38. Alloway, T.P. (2011). Benefits of computerized WM assessment. Educational & Child Psy, 28, 8-17.
39. Alloway, T.P. (2011). Commentary on Effect of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate on different domains of attention & EF in chld with ADHD. Dev Medicine & Child Neurology, 53, 780.
40. Alloway, T.P. & Passolunghi, MC. (2011). The relations between working memory and arithmetical abilities: A comparison between Italian and British children. Learning and Individual Differences, 21, 133-137.
41. Injoque-Ricle, I., Calero, A., Alloway, T.P., & Burin, D. (2011). Assessing WM in Spanish-Speaking Children: Automated Working Memory Assessment Battery Adaptation. Learning & Individual Differences, 21, 78-84.
42. Visu-Petra, L, Cheie, L, Benga, O, & Alloway, T.P. (2011). Effects of anxiety on simple retention and memory updating in young children. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35, 38-47.


  • 2010

43. Alloway, T.P. (2010). Working memory and executive function profiles of students with borderline intellectual functioning. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 54, 448-456.
44. Alloway, T.P. & Alloway, R. G. (2010). Investigating the predictive roles of working memory and IQ in academic attainment. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 106, 20-29.
45. Alloway, T.P., Banner, G., & Smith, P. (2010). Working memory and cognitive styles in adolescents’ attainment. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 567-581.
46. Alloway, T.P., Elliott, J., & Holmes, J. (2010). The prevalence of ADHD-like symptoms in a community sample. Journal of Attention Disorders, 14, 52-56.
47. Alloway, T.P., Elliott, J., & Place, M. (2010). Investigating the Relationship Between Attention and Working Memory in Clinical and Community Samples. Child Neuropsychology, 16, 242-254.
48. Alloway, T.P., Gathercole, S.E., & Elliott, J. (2010). Examining the link between working memory behavior and academic attainment in children with ADHD. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 52, 632-636.
49. Alloway, T.P., Kerr, I., & Langheinrich, T. (2010). The effects of articulatory suppression and manual tapping on serial recall. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 22, 297-305.
50. Elliott, JG, Gathercole SE, Alloway, TP, Holmes, J & Kirkwood, H. (2010). An evaluation of a classroom-based intervention to help overcome working memory difficulties and improve long-term academic achievement. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 9, 227-250.
51. Holmes, J., Gathercole, S., Place, M., Alloway, T.P., & Elliott, J. (2010). An assessment of the diagnostic utility of EF assessments in the identification of ADHD in children. Child & Adolescent Mental Health, 15, 37-43.

  • 2009

52. Alloway, T.P. (2009). Working memory, but not IQ, predicts subsequent learning in children with learning difficulties. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 25, 92-98.
53. Alloway, T.P., Gathercole, S., Holmes, J., Place, M., & Elliott, J. (2009). The diagnostic utility of behavioral checklists in identifying children with ADHD and children with WM deficits. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 40, 353-366.
54. Alloway, T.P., Gathercole, S.E, Kirkwood, H.J., & Elliott, J.E. (2009). The cognitive and behavioral characteristics of children with low working memory. Child Development, 80, 606-621.
55. Alloway, T.P., Gathercole, S., Kirkwood, H., & Elliott, J. (2009). The working memory rating scale: A classroom-based behavioral assessment of WM. Learning & Individual Differences, 19, 242-245.
56. Alloway, T.P., Rajendran, G., & Archibald, L.M. (2009). Working memory in children with developmental disorders. Journal of Learning Difficulties, 42, 372-382.

  • 2008

57. Alloway, T.P., & Archibald, L.M. (2008). Working Memory and Learning in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Specific Language Impairment. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41, 251-262.
58. Alloway, T.P., Gathercole, S.E, Kirkwood, H.J., & Elliott, J.E. (2008). Evaluating the validity of the Automated Working Memory Assessment. Educational Psychology, 7, 725-734.
59. Alloway, T.P., & Warner, C. (2008).The Effect of Task-Specific Training on Learning and Memory in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 107, 273-280.
60. Archibald, L.M. & Alloway, T.P. (2008). Comparing Language Profiles: Children with Specific Language Impairment and Developmental Coordination Disorder. International Journal of Communication and Language Disorders, 43, 165-180.
61. Gathercole, S.E, Alloway, T.P., Kirkwood, H.J., & Elliott, J.E. (2008). Attentional and executive function behaviors in children with poor working memory. Learning and Individual Differences, 18, 214-223.


  • 2007

62. Alloway, T.P. (2007). Working Memory, Reading and Mathematical Skills in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 96, 20-36.
63. Alloway, T.P. (2007). Investigating the roles of phonological and semantic information in sentence recall? Memory, 15, 605-615.
64. Alloway, T.P. & Temple, K.J. (2007). A Comparison of WM Profiles and Learning in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Moderate Learning Difficulties. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21, 473-487.

  • 2006

65. Alloway, T.P., Gathercole, S.E., & Pickering, S.J. (2006). Verbal and visuo-spatial short-term and working memory in children: Are they separable? Child Development, 77, 1698-1716.
66. Alloway, T.P., Corley, M., & Ramscar, M. (2006). Seeing ahead: Experiences and language in spatial perspective. Memory & Cognition, 34, 380-386.
67. Alloway, T.P. & Gathercole, S.E. (2006). How does working memory work in the classroom? Educational Research and Reviews, 1, 134-139.
68. Gathercole, S.E, & Alloway, T.P. (2006). Short-term and working memory impairments in neurodevelopmental disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 4-15.
69. Gathercole, S.E., Alloway, T.P., Willis, C., & Adams, A.M. (2006). Working memory in children with reading disabilities. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 93, 265-281.

  • 2005

70. Alloway, T.P. & Gathercole, S.E. (2005). The role of sentence recall in reading and language skills of children with learning difficulties. Learning and Individual Differences, 15, 271-282.
71. Alloway, T.P. & Gathercole, S.E. (2005). Working memory and short-term sentence recall in young children. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 17, 207-220.
72. Alloway, T.P., Gathercole, S.E., Willis, C., & Adams, A.M. (2005). Working memory and special educational needs. Educational and Child Psychology, 22, 56-67.
73. Alloway, T.P., Gathercole, S.E., Adams, A.M., & Willis, C., Eaglen, R., & Lamont, E. (2005). Working memory and other cognitive skills as predictors of progress towards early learning goals at school entry. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 23, 417-426.

  • 2004 and earlier

74. Alloway, T.P. & Corley, M. (2004). Speak before you think: The role of language in verb concepts. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 4, 319-346.
75. Alloway, T.P., Gathercole, S.E., Willis, C., & Adams, A.M. (2004). A structural analysis of working memory and related cognitive skills in early childhood. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 87, 85-106.
76. Alloway, T.P., Ramscar, M., & Corley, M.C. (2001). The role of thought and experience in the understanding of spatio-temporal metaphors. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Cognitive Science Conference, 9-14. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
77. Alloway, T.P. & Alloway, R.G. (2000). Difficulties with the realist position in the relationship between thought and language. International Journal of Psychology, 35, 390.
78. Alloway, T.P., Ramscar, M., & Corley, M.C. (1999). Verbal and embodied priming in schema mapping tasks. Proceedings of the 21st Annual Cognitive Science Conference, 13-18. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Contact Information

Building 51, Room 3439

(904) 620-1614