Few pages in the annals of labor surpass the 1937 “Little Steel” strike in viciousness, press distortion, suppression of basic civil rights, and police brutality. The findings of Congressional Committees, decisions of the NLRB, and judgments of the courts clearly testify to industry’'s reliance on lies, bribes, threats and brute force.... Under the ruthless leadership of Republic Steel’s Tom Girdler, “Little Steel” announced its intention to “smash” any attempts at organization.... By late fall, most of the men were back at work without a contract.... The “Little Steel” strike had been broken, at least for the moment.
— Then & Now United Steelworkers of America, AFL-CIO-CLC
Stark County Coroner E.C. Reno ruled “excusable homicide”" in the deaths of Nick Vathias and Fulgencia Calzada. Vathias’s name is sometimes spelled Vadlas or Vadios in The Evening Independent and elsewhere. Betty furnace information from Ruth Kane’s Wheat, Glass, Stone and Steel (Massillon Bicentennial-Sesquicentennial Committee).
Account of St. Dymphna in the Rev. Sabine Baring-Gould’s The Lives of the Saints, Vol. V (Edinburgh: John Grant, 1914). Additional information: publications from the National Shrine of St. Dymphna (first church in America dedicated to her honor, 5/15/1938), Massillon State Hospital, Massillon, Ohio.
(Not many in...) from William M. McCarty, “Think about it,” The Evening Independent, 1986.
Sue D. Burton | Acknowledgments Contents | Mudlark No. 60 (2016)