The Effects of the American Revolution; Turnbull's Bitter Quarrel with Governor Patrick Tonyn; Smyrnea Fails and the Settlers Depart

David Yeats to James Grant

St. Augustine, February 27, 1776

Yeats told the former governor that William Drayton had been suspended as chief justice of the province and that “The Doctor is very active in his behalf. About ten days ago an anonymous advertisement was struck up, desiring a meeting of the inhabitants to take into consideration the present situation in America in general, and this province in particular and to make out a loyal address to His Majesty. Yesterday they met and part of the inhabitants signed the address. This day the Doctor at the head of a committee of them waited on the Governor with a copy of it, and were received, I dare say not as they wished, but as they might have expected– Very Outrageously –for the whole of this business was carried on without the consent, privity, or knowledge, and with an avowed intention that it should be presented through him. That was reserved for the Doctor, who in plain terms told him that the inhabitants had done him the honour, it therefore could be viewed in no other light than as an open affront to the governor, he saw it as such and treated them accordingly. Nay this address it is probably would never have been thought of had it not been to promise at the same time another to the Chief Justice which was privately handed about extolling–so it is reported–his conduct and praising his ability, integrity and uprightness in the discharge of his office. What success it was attended with is not generally known, but it is supposed that all those who signed the original signed this likewise.

“This mode of addressing His Majesty through another channel than that of his governor is not new in America, and it may not be of much service to the province, however loyal. At this time another ddress to His Majesty is carried on by those inhabitants that would not sign the first on account of the improper channel through which it was to be conveyed. So that this town may be said to be divided against itself.”

James Grant Papers

Andrew Turnbull to Patrick Tonyn

Smyrnéa, March 7, 1776

In answer to your Excellency's letter of the 27 th of last month, I have the honour to acquaint you, Sir, that there are two hundred males on this settlement, from the age of sixteen to fifty.

I do not pretend to be a judge of their military abilities, but I can safely vouch for their loyalty to His Majesty, for their diligent and honest endeavors to fulfil their contracts with me, and for their affectionate care in supplying their families with the daily necessaries of life. And I think it a duty incumbent on me to beg that your Excellency would please to grant such a protection for these industrious foreigners as may prevent their being disturbed from agriculture without which they with their Families must starve.

Colonial Office Papers

Andrew Turnbull to Governor Patrick Tonyn

St. Augustine, March 15, 1776 (enclosed in Tonyn to Lord Germaine, March 22, 1776)

“I have the honor of your Excellency's letter of the 4 th of this March, in which I am desired to give information against myself on a subject which your Excellency seems to think culpable.

“If I had done anything which had a tendency that way, it would not be prudent to inform against myself, nor could it be required of me. But as I am conscious of my own innocence and that what I did, on the occasion you mention was to assist a most worthy and respectable man under disagreeable circumstances. I will relate to you, Sir, how that affair happened.

“The greatest part of the principal inhabitants of this province, being not at Mr. Woods Tavern on the 27 th of last March, to prepare a dutiful and loyal address to the majesty, I was desired to take the chair and to profess that address to which I had the satisfaction to see a sincere and hearty concurrence. That business being over, some at the meeting went away, and Mr. Drayton's suspicion being then a general and interesting subject of conversation I was asked by some of the gentlemen near me, if I had not seen the charge against him and his defiance. I replied that I had a copy of these papers in my pocket, which Mr. Drayton had given me for my own private satisfaction. I was desired to read them, which I did, and I remember that I turned to the gentleman on my right hand and said that, in my opinion, Mr. Drayton had justified himself. And I sincerely own, Sir, that I think it still, and it is a satisfaction to me that this cannot contradict any opinion of your Excellency for as far as I can understand from the charge and defense mentioned your Excellency brought the charge against Mr. Drayton, and, therefore from a just delicacy did not give an opinion or vote, but that as I have been told, Mr. Drayton was suspended by the advice of four of the gentlemen of the council, and that two others of that honorable board were against the suspension. If that was the case I only differ in opinion from four gentlemen of the council, they are men, Sir, and not infallible. The other two gentlemen of that board certainly thought so and consequently were against the suspicion and I can assure your Excellency that their opinion was of great weight with the publick, for it coincided with what they had always entertained of Mr. Drayton's abilities and integrity as a judge, and as a loyal subject. This, Sir, is evident form an address to him on this occasion by almost all the men of property and character in this province.

“Why then, Sir, am I singled out and called on for information about this business, in which so many are concerned? And why am I not permitted to give my opinion, in conversation, where that opinion is founded on conviction, and from a most intimate knowledge of Mr. Drayton in his publick and private capacities?

“If it is to gratify the resentment which your Excellency threatened me and others with on the 28 th of last Month, when at your own request a committee of seven myself included, of the oldest and principal inhabitants of his province, waited on your Excellency in a most respectful manner to present to you, a copy of a dutiful and loyal address to his majesty, and to desire your approbation, it will not look well on your part, Sir, I therefore beg that, as you are the representative of an August and great King, that you would not descend from that dignity, to pursue a hasty and undeserved resentment against me. Reflect, Sir, that after that public threat all will appear to spring from that motive. Consider also, by destroying me you involve in my ruin hundreds of His Majesty's most loyal and industrious subjects, who look up to me, and depend on me for every necessary of life.

“I beg leave also to remind your Excellency that I settled here under the auspices of his present majesty. I was even made happy by his most gracious wishes for any success in an undertaking never before attempted on as large a scale by any private person, and that the majesty was pleased to order his governor of this province to assist me as much as was in his power

“Reflect, Sir, on all these circumstances, and let not the hasty anger of a moment counteract His Majesty's most gracious intention towards me, nor carry you out of the line of government to gratify a private resentment to the destruction of a man whose most active life has been employed for the benefit of mankind and in his duty to his sovereign. I have always endeavoured, Sir, to render myself useful to the community I live in, and particularly to this province, in which I have resided many years with honour, decency, credit and reputation. Weigh me, Sir, in the balance against the men who are your informers and I dare say Sir that you will find them men of little property, credit, or consequence, I cannot have any enemies but such as come under this description.

“Shun I beg Sir, the insinuations of such men, whoever they are, they are enemies to you, Sir, to me, and to the tranquility and peace of this province.

“I hope, Sir, you will please to excuse the freedom of this advising style. I would not have presumed to trouble your Excellency on such a subject, but in my own defense, and to desire you to beware of men who endeavour to set your Excellency at variance with me. The intentions of such men are easily discoverable, Sir, by that just and never failing criterion that all good men endeavour to conciliate differences, but bad men busy themselves in making and widening breaches in friendship and mutual confidence.”

Colonial Office Papers (CO 5/556)

Governor Patrick Tonyn to Andrew Turnbull

March 18, 1776

“I received your letter in answer to mine of the 4 th Instant—

There could be no impropriety in desiring to know from yourself how far a report concerning your conduct at a meeting of the inhabitants was true.

“Without criticising every particular paragraph of your letter, I must beg leave lt observe for your satisfaction, and from those that gave you such intelligence, that your information concerning the proceedings of the Council is not consistent with Truth and with Fact. And I am sorry to have occasion to say that a perversion of truth and facts hath been too much a fashion with some people here.

“The Members of the Council were unanimously of opinion that Mr. Drayton should be suspended, and it appears on the Journals of the Council that they agreed in opinion upon every charge except the first.

“It is not however uncommon for people to be greatly mistaken, who officiously concern themselves with the affairs of others they cannot be acquainted with every circumstance or the secret motives and intentions of others, and must be incompetent judges.

“It is not my intention, and it is contrary to my very nature to encroach upon the rights of private judgement or upopn any of the privileges of the people, but I will not dispense with the power of calling the Servants of the Crown within this Province to answer and account for their conduct when I think them blameable.

“I plainly and fairly acquaint you, that I think your behaviour upon the occasion is of such nature that I intend to lay such circumstances of it, as are come to my knowledge before the Council. It seems to me very inconsistent and highly improper in the Secretary of the Province as chairman of a meeting of the inhabitants to lay before them the charges brought against a Servant of the Crown, and his deference after the Governor by the advice of Council has thought to suspend him from his office until His Majesty's pleasure is known.

“I am not to be intimidated from doing what I conceive to be my duty from an apprehension that narrow minded people may suspect me of mean resentments. I am happy in the sensations within my own breast which are there satisfactory that I am not animated with any such base motives and I am confident that when I do my duty I shall not receive the censure of a most gracious and discerning sovereign to whom alone I reckon myself accountable for every action of the administration of the Government of this Province.

“In the present case I shall view you entirely as a civil officer of Government in this Province industriously and officiously concerning in my opinion in measures tending to bring into contempt the administration of the Government of this Province.

“Pray Sir what threats do you pretend I made use of? I mentioned no threats, I meant none: nor do I harbour or entertain the least personal resentment against any of those gentlemen who brought me the Address to His Majesty which until then I had not seen, or had before conceived to be only a copy? And pray from whom did this address come or who appointed these gentlemen to wait on me? No names were to it, consequently I could not tell who they were. Besides the progress you informed me the original was to take until it arrived at the Throne, if it be not improper and unconstitutional, the mode of it I could not approve. Therefore from a natural impulse which upon mature reflection I do not condemn, I considered the manner of conveying the Address to His Majesty and of presenting me with a copy of it, without even a copy of the names of the subscribers, as an insult to His Majesty's Representative and I treated it as such.

“I should be sorry if be these means of any persons ruin, I heartily sympathize with all in disagreeable circumstances even when their misfortunes are premeditatedly of their own acquiring notwithstanding frequent reproofs and warnings of their doing wrong indeed with no effect: But however disagreeable it may be to me I must do my duty.

“If to this moment I have not shewn you marks of civility and attention it is owing to yourself, as you have not done me the favour of calling upon me, on the several times you have been lately in town.

“I sincerely wish for your success as a planter and that of your settlement, I shall always be ready by every means in my power to give it and you every protection and assistance.

“I cannot help expressing my surprise that you seem to have totally forgot my early attention to it, when I visited your settlement before I did my own plantation, recommended regulations and was at pains to satisfy the loud complaints of tyranny and oppression, which were not entirely concealed, or confined within the knowledge of the people of this Province.

“I have so much occupation I have neither time nor inclination to enquire particularly into the circumstances of individuals, it is a thing on the best view of it, that I think has a very bad grace, and at the same time a very difficult matter to know the truth, there being very often, which is well known from experience in the world, appearances when examined, have very little or no substance and may fall properly under the denomination of shadows. I do not however despise any person, far be it from me.

“I cannot omit to thank you for the favourable opinion you entertain of my judgement in the choice of my acquaintance when I am well convinced that they are of the stamp you insinuate them to be of, I shall most certainly look out for others. But I am certain of one thing my acquaintance have not told me untruth.”

Colonial Office Papers (CO 5/556)

Andrew Turnbull to Lord George Germain

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for America

London, May 10, 1776

I have the Honor to enclose with this a Copy of an Address, which the principal Inhabitants of the Province of East Florida desired me, being then on my departure for England to present to his Majesty, or to give it into your Lordship's Hands, as his Majesty should please to direct.

I am also desired to acquaint your Lordship with some matters relating to that Province, which I beg Leave, when convenient, to submit to your Lordship's Consideration.

It is with the greatest Respect that I have the Honour to be, My Lord, Your Lordships Most Obedient and Most Humble Servant

Andrew Turnbull

Colonial Office Papers

David Yeats to James Grant

St. Augustine, August 7, 1776

. . .

“Doctor Turnbull has been suspended [from the Royal Council] for leaving the province without the Governor's leave, and for his extraordinary conduct in laying Mr. Drayton's case before the public.”

. . .

James Grant Papers

Robert Bisset to Patrick Tonyn

Palmerina, September 1, 1776

“I this minute received your letter to Andrew Turnbull [warning of a possible invasion by rebel soldiers from Georgia]. This information is very alarming especially with regard to Doctor Turnbull's people, a great many of whom would certainly join them. And the plantations have neither arms nor ammunition, either to defend themselves or to endeavor to prevent them landing at Smyrnea. They can only come in with boats as our Barr has not water enough for the draught of any private [vessel] which must be built sharp for sailing. So that I think our plantations not in great danger, as we can get our Negroes out of the way. If such an event should happen most probably those that joined them of the Smyrnea settlements, would endeavor to plunder our plantations. However, I have a great confidence in the badness of our bar, which I hope will [deter] them from attempting anything here. I shall set out immediately for Smyrnea & will make the best dispensation I can for the defence of the place by arming those we can trust & disarming the suspected, and I shall acquaint all the Plantations and put them on their Guard.

We are much obliged to your Excellency for this early information, which shows your attention to the good of the Province & the security of the property of the settlers.

Colonial Office Papers

Governor Patrick Tonyn to Lord George Germaine

St. Augustine, May 8, 1777

. . .

“In obedience to your Lordships commands to me I have paid, my Lord, and shall pay, particular attention to the Smyrnea Settlement: but my Lord, I am convinced that your Lordship does not desire that I should give the least countenance to injustice and tyranny and oppression, exercised to a degree disgraceful to His Majesty's Government, if the grievances complained of by the settlers are true. I am inclined to see that justice is done these poor people, not only from a principle of humanity, but from policy, as I am credibly informed, that they have invited the Rebels in Georgia to come to their relief, and deliverance, and have promised their assistance, and Mr. Bisset acquaints me that they are not to be trusted with arms, and has requested me in case of an invasion to bring the most turbulent of them to town.

“About two months ago some of them came to town, to demand justice and to be released from their bondage, alleging their time of servitude was expired, and that the terms on Mr. Turnbull's part had not been complied with. They were persuaded to return.

“Last week ninety of them, many of whom left their families at Smyrnea, came to town with like complaints. To secure the crop, and for the benefit of the settlement, I with difficulty prevailed upon them to return to their usual labour, and assured them of good usage in future, and a larger allowance of provisions, and that I should take care, that justice should be done them. They have left twelve men, to state and represent their grievances, and there is reason to believe, that many and shocking and unjustifiable actions will come to light, for by the affidavits of some of these people, besides the distress, tyranny and cruelties they have suffered, not less than six murders have been committed, at least six people have lost their lives, inquiry has been made into it.

“Upon their arrival in town, I sent for the Attorney General, who is one of Doctor Turnbull's attorneys, and directed him to settle matters in the best manner he could. I wrote to Mr. Drayton to hear their complaints, and to administer justice, he did not give me an answer, but directed them I understand to be carried before some other magistrate, who certainly cannot be supposed more capable of judging in the matter in which private injuries, and the public credit of the Province are concerned, than the Chief Magistrate.

“I have my Lord in my former letters mentioned to your Lordship, the little hopes I had entertained of the success of that settlement, whatever the ideas the gentlemen in England concerned in it have of its success, I will venture my Lord to affirm, and I am confident, that the discharging of the white people will be no real loss to them, as the expence of their and their families maintenance will ever equal the value of their labour, when the produce comes into other hands than their own, yet, my Lord these may individually and unconnected prove industrious settlers in the province.

“I beg leave, my Lord, to repeat to your Lordship, that I am ashamed to trouble your Lordship with complaints of things which ought to be settled on the spot, without your Lordship so much as hearing of them, but it is impossible my Lord, after considering what has passed to call to account for their misconduct the officers of the Crown, the American levelling principles have not been less alive here, than in other Provinces, Governors pulled down, and Government trampled upon, the attempts to that end in this Province, thank God have failed in their completion; and I am happy my Lord, in my own conscience that I have preserved this Province in its allegiance to my most gracious Sovereign, and I trust and hope I may be permitted to mention to your Lordship, what has been found and proved by experience, that the American Government have been in themselves to weak to stand, and without Governors are powerfully supported my Lord by His Majesty's Ministers, their Government cannot escape being brought into contempt by the turbulent and factious.”

Colonial Office Papers (CO 5/557)


Henry Yonge, Jr. to Governor Patrick Tonyn


St. Augustine, May 8, 1777


“Some time past a number of Doctor Turnbull's people applied to me to redress some grievances they complained of. When being informed that it was not in my Power to assist them, but that their application should be made to some of His Majesty's Justices of the Peace, they accordingly made such application, but as their number was great & the examination would consequently be long & troublesome a few were appointed to represent their grievances. These, to save the Magistrates unnecessary trouble, have had the subjects of their complaints committed to writing by my clerk since which they have sworn to the truth of them before Spencer Man, Esq., one of His Majesty's Justices of the Peace of this Province, which will undoubtedly lay them before your Excellency in due time & take such steps as are necessary thereupon. However, as Your Excellency is his Majestys Representative in this Province and the guardian of the rights & liberties of his subjects or those under his protection & upon perusal of a copy of the several depositions made during the course of this transaction (which at present appear as facts being uncontroverted) I observe a number of cruelties & indeed murders committed by some of the Doctor's servants (which from his character certainly could never have come to his knowledge). I therefore think it my duty to lay a copy of the several depositions before your Excellency, for your perusal.


I am confident that justice will be done to these people by the gentlemen before whom the Case is to be heard. Yet, I have thought it proper to lay the Papers before you.


Colonial Office Papers

Grievances against Doctor Andrew Turnbull

Deponent 1

“Anthony Stephonopole being duly sworn saith that he hath served Doctor Turnbull nine years and four month, but that he agreed to serve the said Doctor Turnbull but six years in the province of East Florida and in case this deponent after serving six months did not like the place the said Dr. Turnbull agreed to send this Dept. back to his own country, or any other place this deponent should chuse at the expense of the said Dr. Turnbull. The said Dr. Turnbull agreed to pay this Dept. at the rate of five pounds sterling per year, one half to be paid at the end of the year, the other half to be paid at the expiration of the six years, but deponent saith that he hath never received a farthing of the said wages. This Dept. further saith that the said Dr. Turnbull agreed to give this dept. two pounds of fresh bread a day or in case no bread was to be had, eighteen or twenty ounces of biscuit, and also one pound of fresh meat per day or in case no fresh meat was to be had, half a pound of salt pork, and also one pint of wine per day or in case no wine was to be had a pint of what ever liquor was to be had in the country.

“That about three months after his arrival in East Florida he and the rest of the people were used so ill by Dr. Turnbull, they were obliged to rebel against the said Dr. Turnbull, that when the rebellion began the Dept. was absent from the plantation, but that on his return he joined them and was taken prisoner, brought to Augustine and put in confinement, was brought before a justice and discharged, no fault being found with him, and carried back to the plantation to his work. That sometime after the rest of the people being starved, they began to die ten or eleven a day and some days fifteen. That he this Dept. being very much starved, agreed with some others to run away again and thought it better to die in the woods than live in such a miserable condition. That he this Dept. was pursued, catched, brought back again and received one hundred and ten lashes on his bare back and was chained by the leg with a chain of fifteen pounds weight for six months, and was allowed but five quarts of hominy grits a week for his subsistence, except about half a pint of rice for his dinner on Sunday and was obliged to work all day with the chain on his leg and after the work was done was locked up in a room every night, and must certainly have died had not the rest of the people given him some peas and corn which he was obliged to eat raw. That one morning this dept. was taken to work and was cutting down a tree, when he dropt' down with hunger upon which the Dr. was sent for to see if he was dead or alive. That the doctor ordered him to be carried to his room and locked up for fear any body should speak with him or give him any victual, that being recovered and having almost served his time out he went to Dr. Turnbull on the twenty fifth of April and asked him if he would be discharged on the twenty fourth day of June in the year of our Lord 1774 the day his time was out. Dr. Turnbull answered he should be discharged at that time and told him that the Governor was coming to the plantation and desired him not to mention it to the Governor or any body else. That Dr. Turnbull came to him, told him he should be discharged. That this dept. asked Dr. Turnbull to give him leave to sell his things, that Dr. Turnbull told him he would give him liberty to sell his things, and asked him if he wanted to leave him directly, [and] that this Dept. told him he would rather serve him a month longer than a month shorter. That after his time was out he went to Doctor Turnbull and asked for his discharge and Dr. Turnbull told him he would not give it him upon which this deponent answered: Good Sir, let me know how long I must serve you? That Doctor Turnbull answered he could not tell him, that he must pay for the mischief he did at the time the people rebelled. That this deponent answered he would not pay any thing because he was acquitted by the Justice at that time. That this Dept. & two others agreed to run away, & come to Augustine to complain, Doctor Turnbull found it out & put this Dept. in Goal. The next day Dr. Turnbull went to Augustine & when he returned this Dept. sent for him to the Goal and asked him what he confined this Dept. for. That Doctor Turnbull answered, he had been to Augustine & that the Justice said he must serve him four years longer because he this Dept. wanted to steal the vessel Doctor Turnbull had in the River. That this Dept. answered he would go to Augustine & have Justice done him by force, for that he never intended to steal the vessel, & that it was not true that Dr. Turnbull told this Dept. he had no occasion to go to the Justice, because he was a Justice himself, & would do what he pleased. That this Deponent answered, if you will bring a man to swear by our Parson, that I wanted to steal your vessel, I am willing to be punished, & will serve you, five, six, or seven years, and that if you are not satisfied with that I am willing to be hanged for an example to the rest of the people. That Doctor Turnbull told his Dept. he had no occasion to get any one to swear, for that the person who told him was a very honest man. That this deponent answered “Master how can a man be condemned without having Justice done him?” That Dr. Turnbull said “get out you scoundrel,” and kicked him three or four times and ordered him in the stocks and told him if did not find two men to be his security that this Dept. would serve Dr. Turnbull four years, that he would chain him by the leg, & make him work in the field among the Negroes till he died. That this Dept. was obliged to longer by mere force. At the time of his signing the paper this Dept. said Dr. Turnbull I sign this paper by force & not of my own will because I am afraid of the chain, having wore it six months already & saw one of my countrymen die with the chain on his leg. This Dept. therefore signed the paper for fear he should die the same death. And has had no cloaths for two years & one blanket for nine years.

Anthony Stephonopoli (his mark)

Sworn the 7 th day of May 1777 before Spencer Man

Grievances against Doctor Andrew Turnbull

Deponent 2

Nicola Dimalache being duly sworn saith that Peter Dimalache the [cousin] of this Dept. was bound to serve Doctor Turnbull six years in the Province aforesaid to work in the field. That it happened that the said Peter Demalache was sick and that the overseer of Dr. Turnbull, Nichola Moveritte came to the room of the said Peter Demalache who was then sick in his bed and drove him out of his room and beat him with a stick and made him go to work at all times. At some time after, the said Peter Demalache being very sick, he said Nichola Moveritte went to his room and ordered him to go to work, and if he could not work to go in the field and lay down where the people's victuals are cooked, and ordered the said Peter Demalache no victuals that day. At night the people returning home from work they were cooking their suppers when the said Peter Demalache begged for God's sake to give him a little broth, which the said Nichola Moveritte hearing ordered them not to give him a drop and left the said Peter Demalache there all night. That in the morning the People went to work in the field when they found the said Peter Demalachi laying dead with his body covered with mosquitoes all full of blood.

Nichola Demalache

Sworn the 7 th day of May 1777 before Spencer Man

Grievances against Doctor Andrew Turnbull

Deponent 3

Giosefa Marcatto being duly sworn saith that he agreed to serve Doctor Turnbull six years in the province of East Florida, that about a year after this Dept's arrival in East Florida he was very badly used and almost starved to death working days and nights, not even Sunday excepted, without any rest, that he had only seven quarts of hominy grits and eight ounces of pork per week allowed him that this deponent being so ill used and almost starved to death, he agreed with some others to run away, but was catched and brought back and confined in goal with this legs ironed, that some time after this Dept. was taken out of goal and the irons taken off and a large chain twenty four pounds weight put on him, and was tied to a tree and received one hundred and thirteen lashes. That then this Dept. was sent to work with the chain to his leg and a sentry always with him and at night was put in goal and chained to a log. That some time after Dr. Turnbull came into the field upon which this Dept. went to him and begged him for Gods sake to take the chain off, but Dr. Turnbull said, get out you scoundrel, it is not time yet, and this Dept. saith he wore it six months.

“That after this Dept's time was out he applied to Dr. Turnbull for his discharge, but he answered it was not time yet and put him in confinement in the stocks immediately, night and day and allowed him nothing but hominy and water. He also stirred the hominy about to see if there was any meat or fish in it and allowed no person to speak to him. That this Dept. sent to Dr. Turnbull and asked him what he was confined for. Dr. Turnbull answered because he this Dept. cursed the English Justice, which this Dept. declares is false. That Dr. Turnbull went to Augustine and on his return told this Dept. the English Justice said he must serve him four years longer and if this Dept did not, he would be sent with the chain about his leg to work among the Negroes. That this Dept. signed a paper to serve him four years longer, by force, and this Dept. saith that he hath been always badly used and has had no cloaths for two years past and a blanket for nine years.”

Giosefa Marcatto

Sworn the 7 th day of May 1777 before Spencer Man

Grievances against Doctor Andrew Turnbull

Deponent 4

Pompey Possi being duly sworn saith that about three years and a half ago Doctor Turnbull came into the field and told this Dept. he had not done his task whereupon this Dept. told him he had done his task as well as the rest, that the said Dr. Turnbull beat him on horseback and afterwards dismounted and beat him again and struck him on his private parts, which obliged him to lay in a palmetto house in the field all night not being able to go home. That about three years since two people run away from the plantation of the said Dr. Turnbull, when he was accused of knowing of their direction, which he did know of, but denied it, that he was then carried to the guard house and put in irons for three or four days that the second day he was carried out and tied to a tree and received five and thirty lashes from a Negro by Dr. Turnbull's order who was likewise present. That some time after Nichola Moveritte having taken the cucumbers and melons belonging to this Dept. that he said the next time the said Nicholas Moverette took them he would try who was the best man. That the said Nichola Moverette said he would take no notice till Mr. Andrew Turnbull returned, that the second day after Mr. Andrew Turnbull returned, Nicole Moverette, a blacksmith, and a Negroe came to the field where this Deponent was working and he was stript, tied up, and whipt by a Negroe, by the direction of Mr. Andrew Turnbull for which piece of service the said Negroe received a bottle of rum. That about two months having the pleurisy he did not go to work for one day. That upon his going to work next day, Mr. Andrew Turnbull abused him, and asked him the reason why he did not come to work the day before, and told this Dept. it was him that made all the rest feign sick, upon which Mr. Andrew Turnbull broke two sticks about him as big as his thumb and took him by the hair and beat him with his fist in his breast till he was tired and then dragged him through the field. This Dept. saith he has had no cloaths for fourteen months past and a blanket for nine years.

“And the said Deponent further saith that about five years since Anthony Blaw the cousin of this Dept. being always very sick, Louis Pouchentena obliged him to work at all times, although very sick. Louis Pouchentena came to the field where the said Anthony Blaw was at work cutting down a tree that his companion told the said Pouchentena, that the said Anthony Blaw had fallen down upon which the said Pouchentena said he would presently make him get up and that he was lazy and beat him severely. Then afterwards finding the said Anthony Blaw not able to get up, he, the said Louis Pouchintena, felt his pulse and ordered him to be carried to a palmetto hut by four boys, but before he was carried half way he expired.”

Pompey Posse (his mark)

Sworn the 7 th day of May 1777 before Spencer Man

“Pompey Posse being duly sworn saith that he knew Anthony Lavay who was bound to serve Dr. Turnbull six years. That about eighteen months ago the said Anthony Lavay was working in the field when Nicholas Moveritte came to him and told him he did not do his work well. The said Anthony Lavay answered, he had done it as well as the rest, upon which the said Nichola Moveritte told Dr. Turnbull, who came out into the field the next morning and brought a Negroe with him and ordered the said Anthony Lavay to be tied up and he received upwards of twenty lashes upon his bare back from the Negroe.

“And this Dept. further saith that the wife of the said Anthony Lavay having quarreled with another woman she told Dr. Turnbull that Anthony Lavay's wife had used her ill upon which he ordered the wife of the said Lavay to be tied up and made the other woman flog her, and that the said Anthony Lavay his wife and all the rest of the people were always badly used.”

Pompey Posse (his mark)

Sworn the 7 th day of May 1777 before Spencer Man

Grievances against Doctor Andrew Turnbull

Deponent 5

Pietro Cozisacy being duly sworn saith that he agreed to serve Doctor Turnbull six years in the province of East Florida, that about three months after his arrival in the province aforesaid, he this Dept. together with the rest of the people was so ill used they were obliged to rebel against the said Doctor Turnbull. This Dept. with some others went on board a schooner in the river for fear of being shot. That the schooner was brought back to the plantation and Dr. Turnbull's clerk Lorenzo Bertani came on board the schooner and said to this Dept. Don't you remember you wanted to kill me. This Dept. answered it was not true upon which Lorenzo Bertane went ashore and told Dr. Turnbull that this Dept. wanted to kill him and Dr. Turnbull sent for this Dept. and put him in chains and asked one Mr. Cutter if this Dept. did any harm. Mr. Cutter said no, upon which Dr. Turnbull asked Lorenzo Bertane if it was true that this Dept. wanted to kill him. Lorenzo Bertane answered it was, but this Dept. denied it. Upon which he received nine lashes by Dr. Turnbull's order and was sent to work, but was not able to work, he was so hungry. That then this Dept agreed to run away with another man but were catched and brought back and he received fifty lashes, after which he was chained round the middle with a chain and a large Blacksmith hammer to it of twenty eight pounds weight, and wore them for upwards of a month. That after this Dept's time was out he applied to Dr. Turnbull for his discharge. Dr. Turnbull said he would not give him his discharge because he run away upon which the Dept. answered, if he did run away, he was punished for it, and that it was no reason why he should not be discharged, agreed with two others to run away and come to Augustine but Doctor Turnbull found it out and told this Dept. that the Justice in Augustine said that he this Dept. must find a man to stand security for this Deponent, that he would serve Doctor Turnbull four years longer. But this Dept. answered he would give no security that Dr. Turnbull told this Dept. if he did not give security he should serve six years this Dept. then answered he might do as he pleased. And this Dept. further saith that he hath served Dr. Turnbull Sundays & Holidays and all times whatsoever but that he hath always been badly used by the said Dr. Turnbull.

Petro Cozisacy

Sworn the 7 th day of May 1777 before Spencer Man

“Pietro Cozisacy being duly sworn saith that about three years since a gentleman was at the house of Dr. Turnbull that the gentleman on leaving the house gave Francisco Segi the cook a dollar, that Doctor Turnbull hearing of it took the dollar away from the said Francisco Segi, and ordered him to be tied up, and the said Francisco Segi received twelve lashes from a Negroe. This Dept. says that he has seen numbers of the people who were starving catch the alligators and eat as also the cow hide that was given them by Dr. Turnbull to make moccazines. And this Dept verily believes if he was to relate every thing that was done on the plantation there would be no end to it.”

Pietro Cozisacy

Sworn the 7 th day of May 1777 before Spencer Man

Grievances against Doctor Andrew Turnbull

Deponent 6

Louis Margau being duly sworn saith that he this Dept. engaged himself to Doctor Turnbull for the space of five years to work as a Blacksmith in the province aforesaid that the said Dr. Turnbull procured him the wage of fifty French crowns per year for the first year and to add ten crowns every year to the wages and also promised to allow this Dept. as much as any master Blacksmith in America was allowed and to give this Dept. his discharge at the end of five years. That the said Dr. Turnbull promised to allow this Dept one pound and a half of bread, one pound of meat and eight ounces of rice, with a pint of liquor per day (or if no liquor was to be had three pence per day in lieu thereof). But this Dept. saith that he never received any thing except one pound of pork and seven quarts of hominy grits per week, for about three or four years, but from that time to this he never received any thing but the hominy grits. That the said Dr. Turnbull agreed to give this Dept. a suit of cloaths every year but this Dept. saith that he never received any except a few trifling articles and for these two years past he has received none. This Dept. further saith that after he had served out his time he went to Dr. Turnbull and asked for his discharge, that the said Dr. Turnbull desired this Dept. to follow him, which happened to be to the goal and ordered him fifty lashes which he received from a Negroe and then put this Dept. in irons and confined him in Goal without any subsistence except a little Indian corn and water, at the same time turned his wife to the plantation and kept his infant behind at the age of six months and four days and allowed the mother to come only twice a day to give the infant the breast. That in the space of about two weeks Dr. Turnbull took this Dept. out of goal and told him if he would promise to remain with him five years longer he would release him. That this Dept. seeing the miserable condition his wife and child and likewise himself was in, being almost starved, he was forced to sign a paper to serve Dr. Turnbull five years longer and then sent this Dept. to work in the field for about the space of fifteen months, then the said Dr. Turnbull finding the blacksmiths work was going on wrong he put this Dept. in his former situation and promised to behave better to him for the future, but this Dept. could not credit him because he deceived this Dept. so often before and after some time left the plantation and came to Augustine to get justice done him. And this Dept. further saith that he hath been always badly used by the said Dr. Turnbull.”

Louis Margau

Sworn the 7 th day of May 1777 before Spencer Man

Grievances against Doctor Andrew Turnbull

Deponent 7

Giosefa Lurance being duly sworn saith that he engaged to serve Doctor Turnbull for ten years to work in the field as a farmer. That about four years since he was working in the field carrying a large log which he was very much fatigued with and told Simon, Dr. Turnbull's overseer, that he this Dept. was not able to carry it, upon which the said Simon came behind this Dept. and knocked him down and the log which was very heavy fell with great force upon this Dept's breast, which disabled him very much and that he hath never recovered of it and has not been able to do his work properly. This Dept. also saith that he hath always been badly used and much stinted with victuals while living with the said Dr. Turnbull and has had no cloaths for four years past, except a jacket.

“This Dept. further saith that Paola Lurance the sister in law of this Dept. being in the field at work about six years since the said Simon one of Dr. Turnbull's drivers or overseers came to the said Paola Lurance and asked her if she would sleep with him, she answered she would not, he then told her he would remember her, that about two or three days after the said Paola Lurance being at her work the said Simon came there and immediately found fault with her work and began to beat her severely with a stick. That the said Paola Lurance answered and said to the said Simon do for God's sake Corporal don't beat me for I am big with child and you will kill my child. The said Simon then answered I don't care for you nor your child. I don't care if you both go to Hell. That the said Paola Lurance then went home and about three days after delivered of a dead child. This Dept. believes the said Paola Lurance to have been always badly used.

“This Dept. further saith that about five months ago Matthew Lawrence the brother of this Dept. being at work in the field was taken sick with the belly ache, that the said Simon came into the field and found the said Matthew Lurance leaning over a stump and asked him what was the matter. He told him he had the belly ache upon which the said Simon answered, You lye, you are lazy, and began to beat him with a large stick, till it was wore out, and then beat the said Matthew Lurance with his fist till he was tired and then stamped on him with his feet for a long time. That after that the said Simon went to the place where the other people were working and told them he had been beating the said Matthew Lurance and said he would go and beat him again and immediately he did go and beat the said Matthew Lurance again and left him laying in the field. The said Matthew Lurance some time after got up and went home to his bed. That he lay in his bed for about three months, with the blood running down his back and then died. That some short time before his death he told the people that he was dying, but that it was not God almighty that killed him, it was Simon.

“This Dept. further saith that about eighteen months since James Grunulons this Dept.'s neighbor, being very sick in his bed so much that he was not able to get out of bed to ease himself. That the aforesaid Simon came to his room and asked the said James Grunulons what was the matter. He answered he was almost dead. Simon then said you lie you are lazy and began to beat him and broke a stick on him in the bed, and then beat him with his fists till he was tired and then left him. That in about two or three days after the said James Grunulons died. This Dept. believes that Simons beating the said James hastened his death very much.”

Giosefa Lurance (his mark)

Sworn the 7 th day of May 1777 before Spencer Man

Grievances against Doctor Andrew Turnbull

Deponent 8

Juan Partella being duly sworn saith the he agreed to serve Doctor Turnbull five years as a shoemaker in East Florida for five pounds sterling per year, but this Dept. saith that he never worked at his trade, but was made work in the field and hath never received a farthing of his wages. That this Dept., not being used to work in the field, was not able to do his task as well as the other people, therefore Nichola Moveritte, the corporal by Dr, Turnbull's order, put this Dept. upon half allowance and sometimes none and flogged this Dept. almost every day, with three sticks in his hand at one time because he could not work as well as the rest. That about seven years since this Dept. and the other people being almost starved, he agreed to go to Dr. Turnbull in their name and complain. That when he did so the said Dr. Turnbull ordered this Dept. to be ironed hands and feet and confined in the guard house which was done and he this Dept also received twelve lashes upon his bare back.

“That about the same time this dept and his wife being almost starved he saw Nichola Moveritte the Corporal shoot a turkey buzzard. This Dept. (at that time not knowing what a turkey buzzard was) went to the said Nichola Moveritte and asked him what he would take for it, he answered two weeks allowance of pork, which was two pounds. This Dept. readily agreed to it (being almost dead with hunger) and allowed the said Nichola Moveritte to receive two weeks of his allowance. This Dept. further saith that about seven years ago this dept.'s wife was working in the field she being very hungry pulled an ear of corn and was roasting it when the wife of Nichola Moveritte came there and saw it and immediately went and told the said Nichola Moveritte, who immediately came out to the field and began to beat this dept's wife with his fists and knocked her down and stamped on her several times with his feet, so that she has never recovered of it.

“And this Dept. further saith that about five years since Dr. Turnbull took the dept. away from Nichola Moveritte and put him under the care of another corporal Louis Sauche. That one morning Dr. Turnbull came into the field and told the said Louis Sauche to beat the people very hard, not to mind killing a man for that was nothing. The said Louis Sauche answered if you want to kill a man you may do it yourself for I will not. Dr. Turnbull then said if you don't I will break you and put another in your place and then went away and this Dept. further saith that he hath always been badly used and much stinted in victuals as also his wife and all the rest of the people and has had no cloaths for these two years past.”

Juan Partella

Sworn the 7 th day of May 177 before Spencer Man

Grievances against Doctor Andrew Turnbull

Deponent 9

Rafel Hernandes being duly sworn saith that he agreed to serve Doctor Turnbull six years in the province aforesaid, that about nine years since this Dept. and some others were sent with Mr. Watson in the pine barren about ten miles from the plantation to saw timber, that while he was working there he received news there that his wife was dying, upon which this Dept. left the place where he was working and went to the plantation to see his wife, and the said Watson sent a letter to Mr. Cutter the overseer at the plantation to let him know that this Dept. was run away, upon which the said Cutter immediately put this Dept. in [line missing] received one hundred and fifty lashes upon his bare back and confined him in goal three days longer and then sent him back to his work without letting this Dept. see his wife, who was then dying.

“That Doctor Turnbull put a Negroe with this Dept. to learn to saw. That he was at work with the Negroe when John Brace, one of Dr. Turnbull's overseers came to this Dept. and asked him why he did not saw as much as the other people. This Dept. answered how can I with this Negroe that never sawed in his life before? Upon which the said Brace took a stick and beat this Dept. severely and allowed him no victuals that day, so that this Dept. was obliged to pick the husks of the corn out of the ashes and eat them, or else be starved. That the said Brace told Mr. Watson that this Dept. did not do his work well upon which the said Watson ordered him to be tied up and he received upward of twenty lashes upon his bare back. That about six years since this Dept. and fourteen others were working in the pine barren and they were allowed but nine quarts of hominy grits per day for them all, that the people all agreed to go to Dr. Turnbull and complain if the said Brace the driver did not give them more victuals. That the people sent one Juan to the said Brace to let him know upon which the said Brace took a cowskin and beat him severely and then came to the place where all the people were and asked who it was that wanted to go to complain, one of the people answered it was this Dept. The said Brace then ironed this Dept and also the said Juan and carried them to the plantation, and told Dr. Turnbull they would not work and confined them in goal, with a large chain to each of them and the next morning took the said Juan and gave him twenty lashes upon his bare back and sent them both back to the pine barren to their work. That when this Dept got there Mr. Watson took three hickory sticks and roasted them in the ashes and then tied this Dept. and gave him thirty two lashes till the sticks broke to pieces and kept the chain on this Dept.'s leg for four months.

“That about six years since there was a holiday amongst the people when this Dept. was ordered to work by the said Brace, but refused so to do upon which the said Brace beat this Dept. severely several times that day and allowed him no victuals that day and likewise told him if he did not go to work he would shoot him.

“That about two years since this Dept. was working in an indigo house when Mr. Watson come into the house and abused this Dept. very much and lifted up and ax to strike this Dept. but put it down and beat this Dept. severely with a mangrove stick two inches and a half round, which quite disabled his arm and has lost the power of his finger.

“And this Dept. saith that about eight years since his wife was working in the mill when the miller asked her to make him a cake which she did. That Dr. Turnbull heard of it and sent for this Dept.'s wife and ordered her fifteen lashes upon her bare back and this Deponent further saith that he, his wife, and all the people were always badly used and had no cloaths for two years past and one blanket for nine years.

Rafel Hernandes

Sworn the 7 th day of May 1777 before Spencer Man

Grievances against Doctor Andrew Turnbull

Deponent 10

“Michael Alamon being duly sworn saith that about seven since Biel Vinces (a boy of about ten years of age) being very sick in his room, Lewis Pouchintena came to the room of the said Birel Venes and beat him and drove him out to work in the field and made him live on seven pints of hominy and four ounces of pork per week. When the boy got into the field he told the said Lewis Pouchintena he was not able to work he then took the boy and put him on a stump in the field and ordered this Dept. and the rest of the boys to putt him with stones until the said Biel Venis died on the spot and if this Dept. and the rest of the boys had not done so the said Lewis Pouchentena would have done them so likewise. And this Dept. further saith that he and all the people were always badly used and this Dept. further saith that about seven years since Anthony Row being sick in his room Lewis Pouchintena came to his room, beat him and drove him out to work and when the said Anthony Row got to the field he beat him very much until the said Anthony Row leaned himself against a tree and dropped down dead. And this Dept. further saith that he knew one Anthony Musquetto who died together with hunger.”

Michael Alamon

Sworn the 7 th day of May 1777 before Spencer Man

Grievances against Doctor Andrew Turnbull

Deponent 11

Lewis Cappelli being duly sworn saith that he agreed to serve Dr. Turnbull six years in the province aforesaid. That after having faithfully served his time out he applied to the said Doctor Turnbull for his discharge that he answered he would not give him his discharge and ordered this Dept. into confinement with a chain to his leg and ordered no person to see him or give him any victuals, not even his wife, except a little hominy what Dr. Turnbull saw and stirred with a spoon to see if there was any meat or fish under it, and on the Monday after ordered this Dept. to be taken out of confinement and tied up to a tree and had twelve lashes given by a Negroe and ordered this Dept. in the stocks for six days, at the expiration of which he was put to his work. This Dept. saith he has had no cloaths for two years and one blanket for nine years.

“And this Dept. further saith that he knows Anthony Generina and Pedro Quaski who have served their times but, who likewise applied to Dr. Turnbull for their discharges, but were refused them and were also confined and flogged in the same manner as this Dept. was and at the same time. And the said Dept. saith that he was always badly used.”

Luigi Cappelle

Sworn the 7 th day of May 1777 before Spencer Man

“Lewis Cappelli being duly sworn saith that on or about the fifteenth day of June in the year of our Lord 1773 last past, this Dept. was working in Dr. Turnbull's shop making cart wheels. Mr. Watson on putting the spokes in found they were too crooked, he then ordered this Dept. to alter them and place them right, but not to cut them to short. This Dept. then cut them as he was directed, that in two days after they warped with the heat of the sun, which caused them to be too short. That then Mr. Watson called this Dept. a Negroe son of a bitch and took four sticks each one inch thick and broke them upon this Dept. which made him unable to work for two weeks, but withal the said Watson drove this Dept to work by force and this Dept saith that he was always badly used by the said Watson.”

Luigi Cappelli

Sworn the 7 th day of May 1777 before Spencer Man

Grievances against Doctor Andrew Turnbull

Deponent 12

Juan Serra being duly swore saith that he agreed to serve Dr. Turnbull seven years and he was to be allowed good victuals and drink and also five pounds sterling per year which this Dept. hath never received. That after this Dept had served his time out he asked Dr. Turnbull for his discharge upon which Dr. Turnbull ordered him to be tied up and this Dept. received six lashes upon his bare back from a Negroe. This Dept. answered it was not right a Negroe should flog him, upon which Dr. Turnbull ordered him to be tied up again and he received six more from the Negroe and was then put in irons and this Dept. saith that he was always badly used and has had no cloaths for eighteen months.”

Juan Serra (his mark)

Sworn the 7 th day of May 1777 before Spencer Man

Grievances against Doctor Andrew Turnbull

Deponent 13

Rafaiel Simenes being duly sworn saith that about six years since he together with Glegora Calamara and Michael Grasias, were employed by Dr. Turnbull to cut grass every morning for the horses. That they were very weak with hunger and bad usage and were not able to fetch much grass, for which reason Dr. Turnbull whipt them severely with the horse whip every morning, and if they happened to fetch some oysters or fish they were all taken away so that this Dept. and many others were obliged to kill snakes and eat them or any other vermin, or otherwise starve, and this Dept further saith that he and the said Glegora Calamara were flogged three different times by a Negroe, receiving at each time twelve lashes upon the bare back.

“And this Dept. saith that Dr. Turnbull obliged him to give Vincent Mascaro the miller twelve lashes upon the bare back, otherwise he this Dept. would have been flogged and that he hath been always badly used and likewise all the rest of the people. And has had no cloaths for three years.”

Rafel Simenes

Sworn the 7 th day of May 1777 before Spencer Man

Grievances against Doctor Andrew Turnbull

Deponent 14

Babpina Patchedebourga being duly sworn saith that he agreed to serve Dr. Turnbull six years in the province aforesaid. That Dr. Turnbull agreed to give this Dept. good victuals, and also five pound sterling per year which this Dept. hath never received. That this Dept. hath served his time out but was afraid to ask for his discharge for fear of being flogged and put in irons, therefore this Dept. left the plantation and came to St. Augustine to get his discharge and has had no cloaths for two years and a half.”

Babpina Poutchedebourga (his mark)

Sworn the 7 th day of May 1777 before Spencer Man

Grievances against Doctor Andrew Turnbull

Deponent 15

Pietro Musquetto being duly sworn saith that about seven years since this Dept.'s father Anthony Musquetto being a very old man and not able to do his work was always very much beaten and abused by Nichola Moveritte a corporal, but more especially one day when the said Anthony Musquetto was sick in his bed the said Nichola Moveritte came there and beat him very severely with a large stick and this Dept. says that the said Anthony Musquitto died within two hours after and believes that the beating he received, together with being put on half allowance was the cause of his death, and this Dept. Further saith that he hath been always badly used and severely beat by the said Nichola Moveritte and always told this Dept. that he would kill him as well as he killed his father and this Dept says he was afraid the said Nichola Moveritte would kill him and therefore he came away

Pietro Musquetto (his mark)

Sworn the 7 th day of May 1777 before Spencer Man

Pietro Musquetto being duly sworn saith that he was present when Mathew Trei a servant of Dr. Turnbulls was in the field at work when Nichola Moveritte the Corporal was quarrelling with Joseph Spinata who was standing close by the said Mathew Trei and saw the said Nichola Moveritte lift up an ax, and throw at the said Josefa Spinata, but missed him, and hit the said Mathew Trei in the head & killed him.

Pietro Musquetto (his mark)

Sworn the 10 th day of May 1777 before Spencer Man

Grievances against Doctor Andrew Turnbull

Deponent 16

Christopher Flemming being duly sworn saith that he agreed to serve Dr. Turnbull seven years in the province of East Florida as a carpenter that he was to give him good victuals and drink and to allow this Dept. whatever wages was given a man of his profession in the province. That this Dept. was to be paid one half of his wages at the end of every year and the other half at the seven years but this Dept. saith that he never had good victuals or drink, or ever received a farthing of wages. That this Dept asked the said Dr. Turnbull several times for his discharge but the said Dr. Turnbull always refused to give this Dept. his discharge and abused him very much. And this Dept. further saith that on the ninth day of March 1776 when Dr. Turnbull was going to Augustine to embark for England, this Dept. went to him and asked for his discharge upon which Dr. Turnbull struck this Dept. and told him he would not let him go till he thought proper.”

Christopher Flemming

Sworn the 9 th day of May 1777 before John Haley

Grievances against Doctor Andrew Turnbull

Deponent 17

Lewis Sauche being duly sworn saith that he agreed to serve Dr. Turnbull six years in the province aforesaid. That about six weeks before this Dept.'s time was out, he applied to the said Dr. Turnbull for his discharge to be given him when his time was out, upon which Dr. Turnbull put this Dept. in goal with irons to his leg and nailed them to the wall and remained in that manner for about an hour, when Dr. Turnbull came to the goal and told him if he did not go to his work he would tie him up and flog him. That this Dept. was afraid of being flogged (as he well knew in what an unchristian like manner the people were used, and expected to be used in the same manner) went to his work. That then the said Dr. Turnbull showed this Dept. a false contract to which this Dept.'s name was subscribed to and said to him he was for ten years and that he had two witnesses Pietro Merlin and Gasper Trotti, upon which this Dept. went to call the witnesses and Dr. Turnbull desired him to go to his work and let it alone. That Doctor Turnbull always desired this Dept. to beat the people very much and make them work hard else he would flog him very much and make them work hard else he would flog him and make him work in the field. This Dept. told him he would rather work in the field than use the people cruelly, and his Dept. was always badly used upon that account. This Dept. saith that the aforesaid Pietro Merlin and Gasper Trotti told him that they forged the said ten year contract by Dr. Turnbull's order, otherwise they would have been flogged, and this Dept. further saith that all the people upon the plantation were always badly used..”

Lewis Sauche (his mark)

Sworn the 20 th day of May 1777 before me, John Haley, J.P.

Governor Patrick Tonyn to Lord George Germaine

St. Augustine, December 29, 1777

“My Lord/ I had the honour of your Lorship's separate letter of the 14 th April by Doctor Turnbull who did not arrive here until the 29 th November.

“My inclinations, my Lord, lead me to pay the greatest attention to your Lordship's instructions to me, and with the greatest cordiality I received Doctor Turnbull and reinstated him in the office of secretary of the province and clerk of the Council, and as I did not give the offence to him, I can assure your Lordship I have readily forgiven every transaction of his that might be meant to injure me.

“My warmest thanks are due to your Lordship for your putting a stop to the complaints to which your Lordship alludes although, my Lord, I am an entire stranger to the substance of them, and not in the least doubtful of being able to justify my conduct.

“I am, my Lord, so confident of my own integrity respecting the administration of my Government and of your Lordship's penetration and regard to justice, that I hold their calumnies in the greatest defiance, and am really at a loss what they could have had, or still have, to offer in charge against me.

“I am, my Lord, most assiduous in the Service of my Royal Master, and watchful of the interest of the province and of individuals. I have, my Lord, at great expense defended and secured unmolested the different plantations in the country, so that settlements that were backward advance, and negroes whose work was scarce sufficient for their maintenance bring their Masters a considerable annual income.

“At the first breaking out of the civil war, my Lord, the King's troops in this Province were unacquainted with the woods, and an experienced officer stationed at an out post on the St. Mary's and with an armed sloop and schooner in the river, were forced to relinquish that post.

“Your Lordship may think the Troops of Rangers I have raised expensive to government, but, my Lord, they were absolutely necessary in this country, for cooperating with the King's Troops, and for supplying the town and garrison with provisions, for bringing intelligence from the northward, making incursions into Georgia, keeping constantly that province in a warm alarm, and to secure our settlements from their depredations; and without them, my Lord, the Indians would have been useless, I could not have sent them by themselves to massacre indiscriminately. And I will affirm to your Lordship, that the part Lieutenant Colonel Brown has taken in this affair has done him great honour. Had the persecuted friends of Government in America taken the active part he has, the flames of rebellion would have been extinguished. But, my Lord, a second attack upon my character compels me to speak truths that would otherwise have lain hid.

“It has been with great difficulty I have been able to keep under several people of property here, who are well affected to the American cause did a favourable opportunity offer: and who have not discovered the least desire in any way to contribute to the defence of the province. They are gentlemen but, my Lord, in all the colonies, Georgia excepted, the principal people have been at the head of this rebellion.

“A few days after Doctor Turnbull was reinstated in his office he waited upon me with Colonel Bisset, and signified to me that he imputed the breaking up of his settlement to the countenance I had given and the influence I had used with Mr. Young [Henry Yonge]. This gentleman, my Lord, was warmly recommended to me by Sir James Wright, I never shewd him particular attention or recommended the case of these poor people to him, on the contrary, I treated them with unjustifiable severity and always sent them to the Attorney General who was the Doctor's agent for redress. I will, my Lord, venture to appeal to Mr. Bisset and his agent, if they required any assistance from me, that I did not readily give.

“Great sums of money have been laid out, but, my Lord, these poor people have felt penury and oppression; and Mr. Turnbull's friends here seemed of opinion that by their dismiss[al] he suffered no essential loss. The Courts of Justice, my Lord, discharged some of them, and the agents for the settlement turned off the rest. Many of them came to town with dropsies and other disorders, of which several have died, and only a few now that have obtained their freedom are sufficiently industrious or in health to provide for themselves, for these, my Lord, I have allotted lands between this and the St. Johns River, and must give them some assistance in the provision way.

“I have been informed, my Lord, that about forty thousand pounds sterling has been expended upon that settlement, and that your Lordship may judge of a proposal of reimbursement of that money from the labour of the remainder of these poor people I take the liberty of enclosing to your Lordship a list of the numbers imported, dead and discharged and the Customs account of the exports.

Number of Mahonese, Italians, and Greeks, brought from Minorca to the Province of East Florida by Doctor Turnbull in the year 1768, also the number which have died in each year since, and the number of remaining survivors. Total number brought to the Province of East Florida 1255.

When died Men and Women Children

1768 300 150

1769 155 22

1770 34 6

1771 10 6

1772 8 3

1773 11 13

1774 5 19

1775 30 21

1776 45 8

1777 72 12

670 260

34 Greeks

704 260

Total number brought to the Province 1255

Since died 964

Remaining alive 419

53 Men and Women, and 16 Children died since they left Smyrnea.

St. Augustine, 15 th January 1778

Colonial Office Papers (CO 5/558)