Listed below is a selection of research about various aspects and the efficacy of Distance Learning, as it pertains to specific disciplines. This list is ever-changing, and will continue to be updated with new disciplines and more current research. If you would like to see research within a discipline that is not listed below, please contact CIRT.
For ease of reference, click the links below to jump directly to a specific discipline:
Note: The links for the full text articles listed below are only accessible from on the UNF campus, or by logging into the Library's databases with your UNF userID (N#) and password. If you have questions, or concerns, about logging into the Library, refer to their Remote Access page for more information.
Cheung, L. & Kan, A. (2002) Evaluation of Factors Related to Student Performance in a Distance-Learning Business Communication Course. Journal of Education for Business, 77(5), 257-263.
Abstract: Because most previous studies on college student performance have focused on conventional learning environments in Western cultures, in this study the authors evaluated factors related to student performance in the open and distance-learning environment in Hong Kong. Using two-way cross-tabulations with chi-square testing and equality of academic performance by proposed factors, the authors examined 168 students in a distance-learning business communication course. Results show that tutorial attendance, gender, relevant academic background, previous academic achievement, and relevant learning experience were related to student performance. The results are mostly similar to those of prior studies despite differences in culture, teaching mode, and subject.
Article Link (full text)
Sooner, B. (1999) Success in the Capstone Business Course—Assessing the Effectiveness of Distance Learning. Journal of Education for Business, 74(4), 243-247.
Abstract: New technology is giving students the freedom to take classes virtually anywhere and anytime. For this article, we examined the impact that taking one or more courses through distance learning had on student performance in the capstone business class. The students who earned course credit through distance learning did better in the class. Further, certain types of distance learning appeared to be associated with even higher grades in the capstone class.
Perreault, H., Waldman, L., & Alexander, M. (2002). Overcoming Barriers to Successful Delivery of Distance-Learning Courses. Journal Of Education For Business, 77(6), 313.
Abstract: For this study, the authors collected dam from 81 business professors who taught distance-learning courses at 61 U.S. business schools accredited by the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB). Findings indicate that the professors (a) primarily used self-training for the design and delivery of online courses, (b) believed that the technology was not sufficiently reliable, (c) believed that the greatest benefit of distance baring was flexibility for students, and (d) perceived a student-centered teaching approach as necessary for successful distance-education courses.
Terry, N. (2007). Assessing Instruction Modes for Master of Business Administration (MBA) Courses. Journal of Education for Business, 82(4), 220-225.
Abstract: In this article, the author presents empirical results concerning the effectiveness of campus, online, and hybrid (i.e., a mix of campus and online) instruction in business education. The sample is derived from graduate students enrolled in economics, computer information systems, and finance courses at a regional university. The author investigates assessment of enrollment, attrition, grade distribution, faculty evaluation, course evaluation, and explicit achievement of learning objectives across the various instruction modes. Results show student performance on class assignments to be equivalent across the three instruction modes. Holding ability, effort, and demographic considerations constant, students enrolled in online courses scored over 4% lower on the final exam than campus or hybrid students.
Arbaugh, J. (2001). How Instructor Immediacy Behaviors Affect Student Satisfaction and Learning in Web-Based Courses. Business Communication Quarterly, 64(4), 42-54.Abstract: In this study I investigated whether instructor classroom behaviors, called "immediacy behaviors," are significantly associated with student learning and satisfaction in Web-based MBA courses. Immediacy behaviors represent instructors' attempts to reduce the social distance between themselves and their students. While my study found that immediacy behaviors were positive predictors of student learning and course satisfaction, such other factors as student attitudes toward course software, the length of a course, and prior student and instructor experience with Web-based courses were also significant predictors. These findings suggest that both structural characteristics of MBA programs and instructor behavior merit attention for Web-based courses to successfully deliver graduate management education.
Article Link (full text)
Arbuugh, J. (2000). How Classroom Environment and Student Engagement Affect Learning in Internet-based MBA Courses. Business Communication Quarterly, 63(4), 9-26.
Abstract: While the number of college courses being delivered via the Internet is increasing rapidly, our knowledge of what makes these courses effective learning experiences for students is still limited. Therefore, I conducted a study that examined the effects of technological, pedagogical, and student characteristics on student learning in Internet-based MBA courses. Of these characteristics, I found that only those reflecting instructor efforts to create an interactive classroom environment were significantly associated with student learning. Other characteristics such as the perceived ease of use of the course software package, the perceived flexibility of the online classroom environment, and the amount of time students spent logged onto the course Website were not significantly associated with student learning. These findings suggest that while some level of technological sophistication may be important, teaching expertise may be the primary criterion for teaching success in the online classroom environment. Therefore, instructors may need to spend more time developing and cultivating instructional skills such as simultaneously working with several smaller groups of students, developing interesting discussion questions, and fostering intimacy. To support this faculty development, business schools will likely need to make substantial infrastructural investments to ensure that their online course offerings are pedagogically and technologically conducive to student learning.
Lu, J., Yu, C., & Liu, C. (2003). Learning style, learning patterns, and learning performance in a WebCT-based MIS course. Information & Management, 40(6), 497-507.
Abstract: Web-based learning has been suggested to be the future of all types of distance learning. This study was undertaken to identify the impact of student learning styles, learning patterns, and other selected factors on their learning performance in a Web Course Tools (WebCT) MIS graduate course. Six specific research questions were developed and 76 graduate students participated in this study. It found that none of the factors, except ethnic groups, showed any significant impact on students’ learning performance. The results suggest that, at the graduate level, students are able to learn equally well in WebCT online courses despite their different learning styles, WebCT learning patterns, and background in terms of gender, age, job status, year of admission, previous Web-based learning experiences, and MIS preparation.
Alstete, J. & Beutell, N. (2004). Performance Indicators in Online Distance Learning Courses: a Study of Management Education. Quality Assurance in Education, 12(1), 6-14.
Abstract: Examines student performance indicators in online distance learning courses offered on the Internet at a mid-sized private college in the USA. A sample of 74 undergraduate and 147 graduate business students in ten courses were selected for statistical analysis of their grade performance and the relationship with various indicators. The research results include findings that gender and age are related differently for undergraduate and graduate students to performance in distance learning courses, and that undergraduate grades, age, work experience, and discussion board grades are significantly related to overall course performance. However, standardized test scores (SATs, GMATs) and organization position level are not related to the performance in distance learning courses. Makes recommendations for further qualitative and empirical research on distance learning student performance in online computer-mediated courses and programs.
Jackson, M. & Helms, M. (2010). Student Perceptions of Hybrid Courses: Measuring and Interpreting Quality. Journal of Education for Business, 84(1), 7-12.
Abstract: One popular teaching approach is a hybrid format balancing traditional face-to-face classroom instruction with online components. The authors used strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats methodology to examine if hybrid formats meet student expectations and the M. T. Miller and D. E. Husmann (1996) classification system to identify elements affecting the perception of quality. Results indicated that hybrid classes continued to exhibit the same weaknesses of the online format, and the addition of face-to-face interaction did not minimize weaknesses. The authors present a rationale for the variability of student responses, the same element as a strength and weakness. The authors discuss (a) opportunities for and threats to academic institutions and (b) areas for future research.
McKenzie, I. K. (2002). Distance learning for criminal justice professionals in the United Kingdom: Development, quality assurance and pedagogical properties. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 13(2), 231-249.Abstract: Study of the use of distance learning for Criminal Justice departments in the UK. This article examines distance learning and its benefits from a ten year study. Education for criminal justice professionals in the UK (particularly for the police) was a long time coming. The deep resistance to such notions shown by individual officers, to say nothing of antipathy from the Police Federation (a quasi police union) only started to dissipate in the wake of critical research (and criticism of police ‘research’) in the mid-1980s. Early efforts at such education concentrated on delivery using traditional classroom-based teaching. However, by the early 1990s the inadequacies of such delivery were identified, and full undergraduate programs were developed using distance learning (DL) technology. This paper examines, in the context of 10 years of experience in developing and managing high-quality DL programs for a wide range of criminal justice professionals, the key features of development, design and delivery of such programs in the UK, which extend well beyond Internet/WWW delivery. The article also describes and considers the impact and expectations of the Quality Assurance Agency (QAA), which seeks to monitor and assess the delivery of higher education in the UK, and examines the positive pedagogical outcomes that can, for CJ professionals, follow DL study.
Cotton, R. (2003). Long distance learning. Corrections Forum, 12(5), 56-58.Abstract: This journal article expresses the benefits Nebraska Bellevue University has had with distance learning within the field of Corrections.In 2003, there's an enormous amount of skill involved in the care, rehabilitation, education, discipline, and-ultimately-the return of offenders to society, which develops the online bachelor's degree program. Nebraska's Bellevue University, founded in 1966, offers Cyberactive learning programs for completion of degrees in corrections, criminal justice and related fields. Cotton further discusses the importance of this program to the corrections officers, which offers a life experience credits and online course offerings that fit their schedules.
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