ADA Web Accessibility

UNF strives to ensure that everyone feels welcome to both its physical and online campus! 

The Overlap of Benefits

 Meeting accessibility criteria doesn’t solely benefit one group, following accessibility criteria provides overlapping benefits for a wide array of individuals with disabilities or impairments. Plus following accessibility best practices results in a clearer and more understandable web page in general.

 

 Overlap of accessibility practices and benefits provided to various disabilities. Contact ADA Compliance office for long description.


Web Accessibility and the Law 

Ensuring accessibility is not only the right thing to do, it's the law. Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 prohibits discrimination by public entities against people with disabilities, this includes public colleges and universities. Title II overlaps with the previously existing Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act which generally has more detailed regulations. Section 504 prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities by recipients of federal financial assistance (Includes nearly all public and private colleges). Regulations in section 504 are generally more specific than Title II, and include requirements specific to colleges and universities, including the following excerpts from 34 CFR Part 104.  

  •  Entities providing any aid, benefit or service may not afford a qualified person with a disability an opportunity to participate that is not as effective as the opportunities provided to others. 34 CFR 104.4(b)(1) 
  •  Qualified students may not be excluded from a program or given different benefits or services in a program on the basis of disability. 34 CFR 104.4(b)(1) 
  •  Schools must make “academic adjustments” necessary to afford people with disabilities access to programs unless it would fundamentally alter an essential element of the program. 34 CFR 104.44(a) 
  •  Academic adjustments include “auxiliary aids” necessary to provide access by those with sensory impairments. 34 CFR 104.44(d) 

ADA Title II: Focus on Communication 

Title 28 CFR Part 35 -- Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in State and Local Government Services:

 

 “A public entity shall take appropriate steps to ensure that communications with applicants, participants, and members of the public with disabilities are as effective as communications with others.” – 28 CFR 35.160(a)

Universal Standard: WCAG 2.0 level AA 

Developed by the W3C, the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 are the internationally agreed upon standards for digital accessibility. At UNF, we strive to meet WCAG 2.0 at level AA for web compliance.

Our Standard & Goal: WCAG 2.0 level AA Compliance

Introduction to WCAG 2.0

The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) were developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) to provide international protocols and guidelines in order to ensure the ongoing growth of the web.

For more detailed information on WCAG 2.0 visit the W3C's guide to the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0

WCAG 2.0 Layers of Guidance Reference

W3C has specified several layer of guidance in order to meet the varying needs of its audience, an audience that includes web designers and developers, policy makers, purchasing agents, teachers, and students.

These layer of guidance include overall principles, general guidelines, and testable success criteria. Provided below is a map of the WCAG 2.0 guideline layout:

  • Principles – At the top are four principles that provide the foundation for Web Accessibility: perceivable, operable, understandable, and robust.
    •  Guidelines – under each principle are guidelines. These provide the basic goals that authors should work toward in order to make content more accessible to users with different disabilities. Guidelines are not testable, but provide the framework and overall objectives to help authors understand success criteria.
      • Success Criteria – set to meet guidelines. For each guideline, testable success criteria are provided to allow WCAG 2.0 to be used where requirements and conformance testing are necessary, such as in design specification, purchasing, regulation, and contractual agreements. In order to meet the needs of different groups and situation, three levels of conformance are defined: A (lowest), AA, and AAA (highest). Level AA is considered the minimum standard to meet as agreed by Web Accessibility Experts and the US Department of Justice.

WCAG 2.0 Checklist of Success Criteria

All of the following success criteria must be met in order for a web page to be considered compliant. The entire web page with all its component parts must be meet the following guidelines, a part of a web page that is not compliant results in the entire page being non compliant.


Guideline

Summary

1.1.1 – Non-text Content  

Provide alt text for all non-text content.

 

1.2.1 – Audio-only and Video-only (Pre-recorded) 

Provide an alternative to video-only and audio-only content.

1.2.2 – Captions (Pre-recorded) 

Provide captions for videos with audio.

 

1.2.3 – Audio Description or Media Alternative (Pre-recorded) 

Videos with audio have a second alternative such as a transcript.

1.2.4 – Captions (Live) 

Live videos have captions provided.

 

1.2.5 – Audio Description (Pre-recorded) 

Users have access to audio description for video content.

1.3.1 - Info and Relationships Information, structure, and relationships conveyed on the page can be programmatically determined or are available in text.

1.3.2 - Meaningful Sequence When a list is present, that list is programmatically set into the web page.

1.3.3 – Sensory Characteristics 

Instructions for operating or understanding content do not rely on only sensory characteristics such as shape, size, visual location, or sound.


1.4.1 – Use of Color 

Don’t use presentations that rely solely on color.

 

1.4.2 – Audio Control 

Don’t play audio automatically.

 

1.4.3 – Contrast (Minimum)

Contrast ratio between text and background is at least 4.5:1.

 

1.4.4 – Resize Text 

Text can be resized to 200% without loss of content or function.

 

1.4.5 – Images of Text 

Don’t use images of text instead of text.

 

2.1.1 - Keyboard All content is operable through a keyboard interface.

2.1.2 - No Keyboard Traps Do not trap keyboard users so that they cannot navigate.

2.2.1 - Timing Adjustable Provide user controls for any time limits. 

2.2.2 – Pause, Stop, Hide 

Provide user controls for moving content.

 

2.3.1 – Three Flashes or Below 

Ensure no content flashes more than three times per second.

 

2.4.1 – Bypass Blocks

Provide a ‘Skip to Content’ link on the page.

 

2.4.2 – Page Titled 

Use clear, informative, and precise page titles.

 

2.4.3 – Focus Order

Ensure the content order of the page is logical.

 

2.4.4 – Link Purpose (In Context) 

Ensure every link’s purpose is clear from its text context.

 

2.4.5 – Multiple Ways 

Offer several ways to find pages within a website. 

 

2.4.6 – Headings and Labels 

Use headings and labels that describe topic or purpose.

 

2.4.7 – Focus Visible

Ensure keyboard focus is visible and clear with indicators.

 

3.1.1 - Language of Page  The default human language of the page is programmatically determined.

3.1.2 – Language of Parts

Inform users when the human language on a page changes.

 

3.2.1 - On Focus When a page component receives focus, it does not initiate a change of context for the user.

3.2.2 - On Input Setting changes do not change automatically without informing users that a change will occur once prompted.

3.2.3 – Consistent Navigation

Use menu navigation and format consistently throughout the web site.

 

3.2.4 – Consistent Identification

Use and identify icons and buttons consistently.

 

3.3.1 - Error Identification When an input error is automatically detected, that error is identified and described to the user in text.

3.3.2 - Labels or Instructions Labels or instructions are provided when content requires user input.

3.3.3 – Error Suggestion

Provide suggested fixes when users make input errors.

 

3.3.4- Error Prevention (Legal, Financial, Data) 

Reduce the risk of input errors for sensitive data.

4.1.1 - Parsing Ensure there are no major code errors.

4.1.2 – Name, Role, Value 

Build all page elements for accessibility.


 Resources from the 
ADA Compliance Office


Resources and Guides

Introduction to Web Compliance PowerPoint

This PowerPoint provides detailed instructions on how to fix common web accessibility issues in the CMS. 

((PowerPoint to be added soon)).